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GIRNet: Interleaved Multi-Task Recurrent State Sequence Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In several natural language tasks, labeled sequences are available in separate domains (say, languages), but the goal is to label sequences with mixed domain (such as code-switched text). Or, we may have available models for labeling whole passages (say, with sentiments), which we would like to exploit toward better position-specific label inference (say, target-dependent sentiment annotation). A key characteristic shared across such tasks is that different positions in a primary instance can benefit from different `experts' trained from auxiliary data, but labeled primary instances are scarce, and labeling the best expert for each position entails unacceptable cognitive burden. We propose GITNet, a unified position-sensitive multi-task recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture for such applications. Auxiliary and primary tasks need not share training instances. Auxiliary RNNs are trained over auxiliary instances. A primary instance is also submitted to each auxiliary RNN, but their state sequences are gated and merged into a novel composite state sequence tailored to the primary inference task. Our approach is in sharp contrast to recent multi-task networks like the cross-stitch and sluice network, which do not control state transfer at such fine granularity. We demonstrate the superiority of GIRNet using three applications: sentiment classification of code-switched passages, part-of-speech tagging of code-switched text, and target position-sensitive annotation of sentiment in monolingual passages. In all cases, we establish new state-of-the-art performance beyond recent competitive baselines.


Targeted Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis via Embedding Commonsense Knowledge into an Attentive LSTM

AAAI Conferences

Analyzing people’s opinions and sentiments towards certain aspects is an important task of natural language understanding. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to targeted aspect-based sentiment analysis, which tackles the challenges of both aspect-based sentiment analysis and targeted sentiment analysis by exploiting commonsense knowledge. We augment the long short-term memory (LSTM) network with a hierarchical attention mechanism consisting of a target-level attention and a sentence-level attention. Commonsense knowledge of sentiment-related concepts is incorporated into the end-to-end training of a deep neural network for sentiment classification. In order to tightly integrate the commonsense knowledge into the recurrent encoder, we propose an extension of LSTM, termed Sentic LSTM. We conduct experiments on two publicly released datasets, which show that the combination of the proposed attention architecture and Sentic LSTM can outperform state-of-the-art methods in targeted aspect sentiment tasks.


Attention Based LSTM for Target Dependent Sentiment Classification

AAAI Conferences

We present an attention-based bidirectional LSTM approach to improve the target-dependent sentiment classification. Our method learns the alignment between the target entities and the most distinguishing features. We conduct extensive experiments on a real-life dataset. The experimental results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results.


Multi-task Learning of Pairwise Sequence Classification Tasks Over Disparate Label Spaces

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We combine multi-task learning and semi-supervised learning by inducing a joint embedding space between disparate label spaces and learning transfer functions between label embeddings, enabling us to jointly leverage unlabelled data and auxiliary, annotated datasets. We evaluate our approach on a variety of sequence classification tasks with disparate label spaces. We outperform strong single and multi-task baselines and achieve a new state-of-the-art for aspect- and topic-based sentiment analysis.


Exploiting Coarse-to-Fine Task Transfer for Aspect-level Sentiment Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Aspect-level sentiment classification (ASC) aims at identifying sentiment polarities towards aspects in a sentence, where the aspect can behave as a general Aspect Category (AC) or a specific Aspect Term (AT). However, due to the especially expensive and labor-intensive labeling, existing public corpora in AT-level are all relatively small. Meanwhile, most of the previous methods rely on complicated structures with given scarce data, which largely limits the efficacy of the neural models. In this paper, we exploit a new direction named coarse-to-fine task transfer, which aims to leverage knowledge learned from a rich-resource source domain of the coarse-grained AC task, which is more easily accessible, to improve the learning in a low-resource target domain of the fine-grained AT task. To resolve both the aspect granularity inconsistency and feature mismatch between domains, we propose a Multi-Granularity Alignment Network (MGAN). In MGAN, a novel Coarse2Fine attention guided by an auxiliary task can help the AC task modeling at the same fine-grained level with the AT task. To alleviate the feature false alignment, a contrastive feature alignment method is adopted to align aspect-specific feature representations semantically. In addition, a large-scale multi-domain dataset for the AC task is provided. Empirically, extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the MGAN.