Yang, Min (The University of Hong Kong) | Tu, Wenting (The University of Hong Kong) | Wang, Jingxuan (The University of Hong Kong) | Xu, Fei (Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Chen, Xiaojun (Shenzhen University)
We present an attention-based bidirectional LSTM approach to improve the target-dependent sentiment classification. Our method learns the alignment between the target entities and the most distinguishing features. We conduct extensive experiments on a real-life dataset. The experimental results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results.
Target-dependent sentiment analysis on Twitter has attracted increasing research attention. Most previous work relies on syntax, such as automatic parse trees, which are subject to noise for informal text such as tweets. In this paper, we show that competitive results can be achieved without the use of syntax, by extracting a rich set of automatic features. In particular, we split a tweet into a left context and a right context according to a given target, using distributed word representations and neural pooling functions to extract features. Both sentiment-driven and standard embeddings are used, and a rich set of neural pooling functions are explored. Sentiment lexicons are used as an additional source of information for feature extraction. In standard evaluation, the conceptually simple method gives a 4.8% absolute improvement over the state-of-the-art on three-way targeted sentiment classification, achieving the best reported results for this task.
In several natural language tasks, labeled sequences are available in separate domains (say, languages), but the goal is to label sequences with mixed domain (such as code-switched text). Or, we may have available models for labeling whole passages (say, with sentiments), which we would like to exploit toward better position-specific label inference (say, target-dependent sentiment annotation). A key characteristic shared across such tasks is that different positions in a primary instance can benefit from different `experts' trained from auxiliary data, but labeled primary instances are scarce, and labeling the best expert for each position entails unacceptable cognitive burden. We propose GITNet, a unified position-sensitive multi-task recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture for such applications. Auxiliary and primary tasks need not share training instances. Auxiliary RNNs are trained over auxiliary instances. A primary instance is also submitted to each auxiliary RNN, but their state sequences are gated and merged into a novel composite state sequence tailored to the primary inference task. Our approach is in sharp contrast to recent multi-task networks like the cross-stitch and sluice network, which do not control state transfer at such fine granularity. We demonstrate the superiority of GIRNet using three applications: sentiment classification of code-switched passages, part-of-speech tagging of code-switched text, and target position-sensitive annotation of sentiment in monolingual passages. In all cases, we establish new state-of-the-art performance beyond recent competitive baselines.
Chen, Lu (Wright State University) | Wang, Wenbo (Wright State University) | Nagarajan, Meenakshi (IBM Almaden Research Center) | Wang, Shaojun (Wright State University) | Sheth, Amit P. (Wright State University)
The problem of automatic extraction of sentiment expressions from informal text, as in microblogs such as tweets is a recent area of investigation. Compared to formal text, such as in product reviews or news articles, one of the key challenges lies in the wide diversity and informal nature of sentiment expressions that cannot be trivially enumerated or captured using predefined lexical patterns. In this work, we present an optimization-based approach to automatically extract sentiment expressions for a given target (e.g., movie, or person) from a corpus of unlabeled tweets. Specifically, we make three contributions: (i) we recognize a diverse and richer set of sentiment-bearing expressions in tweets, including formal and slang words/phrases, not limited to pre-specified syntactic patterns; (ii) instead of associating sentiment with an entire tweet, we assess the target-dependent polarity of each sentiment expression. The polarity of sentiment expression is determined by the nature of its target; (iii) we provide a novel formulation of assigning polarity to a sentiment expression as a constrained optimization problem over the tweet corpus. Experiments conducted on two domains, tweets mentioning movie and person entities, show that our approach improves accuracy in comparison with several baseline methods, and that the improvement becomes more prominent with increasing corpus sizes.
Many Artificial Intelligence tasks need large amounts of commonsense knowledge. Because obtaining this knowledge through machine learning would require a huge amount of data, a better alternative is to elicit it from people through human computation. We consider the sentiment classification task, where knowledge about the contexts that impact word polarities is crucial, but hard to acquire from data. We describe a novel task design that allows us to crowdsource this knowledge through Amazon Mechanical Turk with high quality. We show that the commonsense knowledge acquired in this way dramatically improves the performance of established sentiment classification methods.