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Recurrent Neural Network Language Models for Open Vocabulary Event-Level Cyber Anomaly Detection

AAAI Conferences

Automated analysis methods are crucial aids for monitoring and defending a network to protect the sensitive or confidential data it hosts. This work introduces a flexible, powerful, and unsupervised approach to detecting anomalous behavior in computer and network logs; one that largely eliminates domain-dependent feature engineering employed by existing methods. By treating system logs as threads of interleaved ``sentences'' (event log lines) to train online unsupervised neural network language models, our approach provides an adaptive model of normal network behavior. We compare the effectiveness of both standard and bidirectional recurrent neural network language models at detecting malicious activity within network log data. Extending these models, we introduce a tiered recurrent architecture, which provides context by modeling sequences of users' actions over time. Compared to Isolation Forest and Principal Components Analysis, two popular anomaly detection algorithms, we observe superior performance on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Cyber Security dataset. For log-line-level red team detection, our best performing character-based model provides test set area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.98, demonstrating the strong fine-grained anomaly detection performance of this approach on open vocabulary logging sources.


Unifying Isolated and Overlapping Audio Event Detection with Multi-Label Multi-Task Convolutional Recurrent Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a multi-label multi-task framework based on a convolutional recurrent neural network to unify detection of isolated and overlapping audio events. The framework leverages the power of convolutional recurrent neural network architectures; convolutional layers learn effective features over which higher recurrent layers perform sequential modelling. Furthermore, the output layer is designed to handle arbitrary degrees of event overlap. At each time step in the recurrent output sequence, an output triple is dedicated to each event category of interest to jointly model event occurrence and temporal boundaries. That is, the network jointly determines whether an event of this category occurs, and when it occurs, by estimating onset and offset positions at each recurrent time step. We then introduce three sequential losses for network training: multi-label classification loss, distance estimation loss, and confidence loss. We demonstrate good generalization on two datasets: ITC-Irst for isolated audio event detection, and TUT-SED-Synthetic-2016 for overlapping audio event detection.


Convolutional Neural Networks with Intra-Layer Recurrent Connections for Scene Labeling

Neural Information Processing Systems

Scene labeling is a challenging computer vision task. It requires the use of both local discriminative features and global context information. We adopt a deep recurrent convolutional neural network (RCNN) for this task, which is originally proposed for object recognition. Different from traditional convolutional neural networks (CNN), this model has intra-layer recurrent connections in the convolutional layers. Therefore each convolutional layer becomes a two-dimensional recurrent neural network.


RecNets: Channel-wise Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we introduce Channel-wise recurrent convolutional neural networks (RecNets), a family of novel, compact neural network architectures for computer vision tasks inspired by recurrent neural networks (RNNs). RecNets build upon Channel-wise recurrent convolutional (CRC) layers, a novel type of convolutional layer that splits the input channels into disjoint segments and processes them in a recurrent fashion. In this way, we simulate wide, yet compact models, since the number of parameters is vastly reduced via the parameter sharing of the RNN formulation. Experimental results on the CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 image classification tasks demonstrate the superior size-accuracy trade-off of RecNets compared to other compact state-of-the-art architectures.


Deep Alternative Neural Network: Exploring Contexts as Early as Possible for Action Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Contexts are crucial for action recognition in video. Current methods often mine contexts after extracting hierarchical local features and focus on their high-order encodings. This paper instead explores contexts as early as possible and leverages their evolutions for action recognition. In particular, we introduce a novel architecture called deep alternative neural network (DANN) stacking alternative layers. Each alternative layer consists of a volumetric convolutional layer followed by a recurrent layer. The former acts as local feature learner while the latter is used to collect contexts. Compared with feed-forward neural networks, DANN learns contexts of local features from the very beginning. This setting helps to preserve hierarchical context evolutions which we show are essential to recognize similar actions. Besides, we present an adaptive method to determine the temporal size for network input based on optical flow energy, and develop a volumetric pyramid pooling layer to deal with input clips of arbitrary sizes. We demonstrate the advantages of DANN on two benchmarks HMDB51 and UCF101 and report competitive or superior results to the state-of-the-art.