Collaborating Authors

Plug and Play Language Models: A Simple Approach to Controlled Text Generation Artificial Intelligence

Large transformer-based language models (LMs) trained on huge text corpora have shown unparalleled generation capabilities. However, controlling attributes of the generated language (e.g. switching topic or sentiment) is difficult without modifying the model architecture or fine-tuning on attribute-specific data and entailing the significant cost of retraining. We propose a simple alternative: the Plug and Play Language Model (PPLM) for controllable language generation, which combines a pretrained LM with one or more simple attribute classifiers that guide text generation without any further training of the LM. In the canonical scenario we present, the attribute models are simple classifiers consisting of a user-specified bag of words or a single learned layer with 100,000 times fewer parameters than the LM. Sampling entails a forward and backward pass in which gradients from the attribute model push the LM's hidden activations and thus guide the generation. Model samples demonstrate control over a range of topics and sentiment styles, and extensive automated and human annotated evaluations show attribute alignment and fluency. PPLMs are flexible in that any combination of differentiable attribute models may be used to steer text generation, which will allow for diverse and creative applications beyond the examples given in this paper.

Language Generation via Combinatorial Constraint Satisfaction: A Tree Search Enhanced Monte-Carlo Approach Artificial Intelligence

Generating natural language under complex constraints is a principled formulation towards controllable text generation. We present a framework to allow specification of combinatorial constraints for sentence generation. We propose TSMH, an efficient method to generate high likelihood sentences with respect to a pre-trained language model while satisfying the constraints. Our approach is highly flexible, requires no task-specific training, and leverages efficient constraint satisfaction solving techniques. To better handle the combinatorial constraints, a tree search algorithm is embedded into the proposal process of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to explore candidates that satisfy more constraints. Compared to existing MCMC approaches, our sampling approach has a better mixing performance. Experiments show that TSMH achieves consistent and significant improvement on multiple language generation tasks.

Efficient Sequence Labeling with Actor-Critic Training Artificial Intelligence

Neural approaches to sequence labeling often use a Conditional Random Field (CRF) to model their output dependencies, while Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) are used for the same purpose in other tasks. We set out to establish RNNs as an attractive alternative to CRFs for sequence labeling. To do so, we address one of the RNN's most prominent shortcomings, the fact that it is not exposed to its own errors with the maximum-likelihood training. We frame the prediction of the output sequence as a sequential decision-making process, where we train the network with an adjusted actor-critic algorithm (AC-RNN). We comprehensively compare this strategy with maximum-likelihood training for both RNNs and CRFs on three structured-output tasks. The proposed AC-RNN efficiently matches the performance of the CRF on NER and CCG tagging, and outperforms it on Machine Transliteration. We also show that our training strategy is significantly better than other techniques for addressing RNN's exposure bias, such as Scheduled Sampling, and Self-Critical policy training.

Unsupervised Contextual Paraphrase Generation using Lexical Control and Reinforcement Learning Artificial Intelligence

Customer support via chat requires agents to resolve customer queries with minimum wait time and maximum customer satisfaction. Given that the agents as well as the customers can have varying levels of literacy, the overall quality of responses provided by the agents tend to be poor if they are not predefined. But using only static responses can lead to customer detraction as the customers tend to feel that they are no longer interacting with a human. Hence, it is vital to have variations of the static responses to reduce monotonicity of the responses. However, maintaining a list of such variations can be expensive. Given the conversation context and the agent response, we propose an unsupervised frame-work to generate contextual paraphrases using autoregressive models. We also propose an automated metric based on Semantic Similarity, Textual Entailment, Expression Diversity and Fluency to evaluate the quality of contextual paraphrases and demonstrate performance improvement with Reinforcement Learning (RL) fine-tuning using the automated metric as the reward function.

New Techniques that Improve ENIGMA-style Clause Selection Guidance Artificial Intelligence

We re-examine the topic of machine-learned clause selection guidance in saturation-based theorem provers. The central idea, recently popularized by the ENIGMA system, is to learn a classifier for recognizing clauses that appeared in previously discovered proofs. In subsequent runs, clauses classified positively are prioritized for selection. We propose several improvements to this approach and experimentally confirm their viability. For the demonstration, we use a Recursive Neural Network to classify clauses based on their derivation history and the presence or absence of automatically supplied theory axioms therein. The automatic theorem prover Vampire guided by the network achieves a 41 % improvement on a relevant subset of smt-lib in a real time evaluation.