In this paper we study the verification of parameterised multi-agent systems (MASs), and in particular the task of verifying whether unwanted states, characterised as a given state formula, are reachable in a given MAS, i.e., whether the MAS is unsafe. The MAS is parameterised and the model only describes the finite set of possible agent templates, while the actual number of concrete agent instances for each template is unbounded and cannot be foreseen. This makes the state-space infinite. As safety may of course depend on the number of agent instances in the system, the verification result must be correct irrespective of such number. We solve this problem via infinite-state model checking based on satisfiability modulo theories (SMT), relying on the theory of array-based systems: we present parameterised MASs as particular array-based systems, under two execution semantics for the MAS, which we call concurrent and interleaved. We prove our decidability results under these assumptions and illustrate our implementation approach, called SAFE: the Swarm Safety Detector, based on the third-party model checker MCMT, which we evaluate experimentally. Finally, we discuss how this approach lends itself to richer parameterised and data-aware MAS settings beyond the state-of-the-art solutions in the literature, which we leave as future work.
Calvanese, Diego (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano) | Giacomo, Giuseppe De (Sapienza University of Rome) | Montali, Marco (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano) | Patrizi, Fabio (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano)
In this paper, we overview the recently introduced general framework of Description Logic Based Dynamic Systems, which leverages Levesque's functional approach to model systems that evolve the extensional part of a description logic knowledge base by means of actions. This framework is parametric w.r.t. the adopted description logic and the progression mechanism. In this setting, we discuss verification and adversarial synthesis for specifications expressed in a variant of first-order mu-calculus, with a controlled form of quantification across successive states, and present key decidability results under the natural assumption of state-boundedness.
We define generalized ontology-based production systems (GOPSs), which formalize a very general and powerful combination of ontologies and production systems. We show that GOPSs capture and generalize many existing formal notions of production systems. We introduce a powerful verification query language for GOPSs, which is able to express the most relevant formal properties of production systems previously considered in the literature. We establish a general sufficient condition for the decidability of answering verification queries over GOPSs. Then, we define Lite-GOPS, a particular class of GOPSs based on the use of a light-weight ontology language (DL-Llite_A), a light-weight ontology query language (EQL-Lite(UCQ)), and a tractable semantics for updates over Description Logic ontologies. We show decidability of all the above verification tasks over Lite-GOPSs, and prove tractability of some of such tasks.
Description logic Knowledge and Action Bases (KAB) are a mechanism for providing both a semantically rich representation of the information on the domain of interest in terms of a description logic knowledge base and actions to change such information over time, possibly introducing new objects. We resort to a variant of DL-Lite where the unique name assumption is not enforced and where equality between objects may be asserted and inferred. Actions are specified as sets of conditional effects, where conditions are based on epistemic queries over the knowledge base (TBox and ABox), and effects are expressed in terms of new ABoxes. In this setting, we address verification of temporal properties expressed in a variant of first-order mu-calculus with quantification across states. Notably, we show decidability of verification, under a suitable restriction inspired by the notion of weak acyclicity in data exchange.
Artifact-Centric systems have emerged in the last years as a suitable framework to model business-relevant entities, by combining their static and dynamic aspects. In particular, the Guard-Stage-Milestone (GSM) approach has been recently proposed to model artifacts and their lifecycle in a declarative way. In this paper, we enhance GSM with a Semantic Layer, constituted by a full-fledged OWL 2 QL ontology linked to the artifact information models through mapping specifications. The ontology provides a conceptual view of the domain under study, and allows one to understand the evolution of the artifact system at a higher level of abstraction. In this setting, we present a technique to specify temporal properties expressed over the Semantic Layer, and verify them according to the evolution in the underlying GSM model. This technique has been implemented in a tool that exploits state-of-the-art ontology-based data access technologies to manipulate the temporal properties according to the ontology and the mappings, and that relies on the GSMC model checker for verification.