We address the problem of learning classifiers for several related tasks that may differ in their joint distribution of input and output variables. For each task, small - possibly even empty - labeled samples and large unlabeled samples are available. While the unlabeled samples reflect the target distribution, the labeled samples may be biased. We derive a solution that produces resampling weights which match the pool of all examples to the target distribution of any given task. Our work is motivated by the problem of predicting sociodemographic features for users of web portals, based on the content which they have accessed.
Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) algorithms have shown great potential in training regimes when access to labeled data is scarce but access to unlabeled data is plentiful. However, our experiments illustrate several shortcomings that prior SSL algorithms suffer from. In particular, poor performance when unlabeled and labeled data distributions differ. To address these observations, we develop RealMix, which achieves state-of-the-art results on standard benchmark datasets across different labeled and unlabeled set sizes while overcoming the aforementioned challenges. Notably, RealMix achieves an error rate of 9.79% on CIFAR10 with 250 labels and is the only SSL method tested able to surpass baseline performance when there is significant mismatch in the labeled and unlabeled data distributions. RealMix demonstrates how SSL can be used in real world situations with limited access to both data and compute and guides further research in SSL with practical applicability in mind.
Lu, Zhongqi (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) | Zhu, Yin (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) | Pan, Sinno Jialin (Institute for Infocomm Research) | Xiang, Evan Wei (Baidu Inc.) | Wang, Yujing (Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing) | Yang, Qiang (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
Transfer learning uses relevant auxiliary data to help the learning task in a target domain where labeled data is usually insufficient to train an accurate model. Given appropriate auxiliary data, researchers have proposed many transfer learning models. How to find such auxiliary data, however, is of little research so far. In this paper, we focus on the problem of auxiliary data retrieval, and propose a transfer learning framework that effectively selects helpful auxiliary data from an open knowledge space (e.g. the World Wide Web). Because there is no need of manually selecting auxiliary data for different target domain tasks, we call our framework Source Free Transfer Learning (SFTL). For each target domain task, SFTL framework iteratively queries for the helpful auxiliary data based on the learned model and then updates the model using the retrieved auxiliary data. We highlight the automatic constructions of queries and the robustness of the SFTL framework. Our experiments on 20NewsGroup dataset and a Google search snippets dataset suggest that the framework is capable of achieving comparable performance to those state-of-the-art methods with dedicated selections of auxiliary data.
Single-trial classification of event-related potentials in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is a very important paradigm of brain-computer interface (BCI). Because of individual differences, usually some subject-specific calibration data are required to tailor the classifier for each subject. Transfer learning has been extensively used to reduce such calibration data requirement, by making use of auxiliary data from similar/relevant subjects/tasks. However, all previous research assumes that all auxiliary data have been labeled. This paper considers a more general scenario, in which part of the auxiliary data could be unlabeled. We propose active semi-supervised transfer learning (ASTL) for offline BCI calibration, which integrates active learning, semi-supervised learning, and transfer learning. Using a visual evoked potential oddball task and three different EEG headsets, we demonstrate that ASTL can achieve consistently good performance across subjects and headsets, and it outperforms some state-of-the-art approaches in the literature.
While machine learning approaches to visual recognition offer great promise, most of the existing methods rely heavily on the availability of large quantities of labeled training data. However, in the vast majority of real-world settings, manually collecting such large labeled datasets is infeasible due to the cost of labeling data or the paucity of data in a given domain. In this paper, we present a novel Adversarial Knowledge Transfer (AKT) framework for transferring knowledge from internet-scale unlabeled data to improve the performance of a classifier on a given visual recognition task. The proposed adversarial learning framework aligns the feature space of the unlabeled source data with the labeled target data such that the target classifier can be used to predict pseudo labels on the source data. An important novel aspect of our method is that the unlabeled source data can be of different classes from those of the labeled target data, and there is no need to define a separate pretext task, unlike some existing approaches. Extensive experiments well demonstrate that models learned using our approach hold a lot of promise across a variety of visual recognition tasks on multiple standard datasets.