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Convolutional Recurrent Neural Networks for Bird Audio Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bird sounds possess distinctive spectral structure which may exhibit small shifts in spectrum depending on the bird species and environmental conditions. In this paper, we propose using convolutional recurrent neural networks on the task of automated bird audio detection in real-life environments. In the proposed method, convolutional layers extract high dimensional, local frequency shift invariant features, while recurrent layers capture longer term dependencies between the features extracted from short time frames. This method achieves 88.5% Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) score on the unseen evaluation data and obtains the second place in the Bird Audio Detection challenge.


Adaptive pooling operators for weakly labeled sound event detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Sound event detection (SED) methods are tasked with labeling segments of audio recordings by the presence of active sound sources. SED is typically posed as a supervised machine learning problem, requiring strong annotations for the presence or absence of each sound source at every time instant within the recording. However, strong annotations of this type are both labor- and cost-intensive for human annotators to produce, which limits the practical scalability of SED methods. In this work, we treat SED as a multiple instance learning (MIL) problem, where training labels are static over a short excerpt, indicating the presence or absence of sound sources but not their temporal locality. The models, however, must still produce temporally dynamic predictions, which must be aggregated (pooled) when comparing against static labels during training. To facilitate this aggregation, we develop a family of adaptive pooling operators---referred to as auto-pool---which smoothly interpolate between common pooling operators, such as min-, max-, or average-pooling, and automatically adapt to the characteristics of the sound sources in question. We evaluate the proposed pooling operators on three datasets, and demonstrate that in each case, the proposed methods outperform non-adaptive pooling operators for static prediction, and nearly match the performance of models trained with strong, dynamic annotations. The proposed method is evaluated in conjunction with convolutional neural networks, but can be readily applied to any differentiable model for time-series label prediction.


Mosquito Detection with Neural Networks: The Buzz of Deep Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many real-world time-series analysis problems are characterised by scarce data. Solutions typically rely on hand-crafted features extracted from the time or frequency domain allied with classification or regression engines which condition on this (often low-dimensional) feature vector. The huge advances enjoyed by many application domains in recent years have been fuelled by the use of deep learning architectures trained on large data sets. This paper presents an application of deep learning for acoustic event detection in a challenging, data-scarce, real-world problem. Our candidate challenge is to accurately detect the presence of a mosquito from its acoustic signature. We develop convolutional neural networks (CNNs) operating on wavelet transformations of audio recordings. Furthermore, we interrogate the network's predictive power by visualising statistics of network-excitatory samples. These visualisations offer a deep insight into the relative informativeness of components in the detection problem. We include comparisons with conventional classifiers, conditioned on both hand-tuned and generic features, to stress the strength of automatic deep feature learning. Detection is achieved with performance metrics significantly surpassing those of existing algorithmic methods, as well as marginally exceeding those attained by individual human experts.


A Simple Fusion of Deep and Shallow Learning for Acoustic Scene Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In the past, Acoustic Scene Classification systems have been based on hand crafting audio features that are input to a classifier. Nowadays, the common trend is to adopt data driven techniques, e.g., deep learning, where audio representations are learned from data. In this paper, we propose a system that consists of a simple fusion of two methods of the aforementioned types: a deep learning approach where log-scaled mel-spectrograms are input to a convolutional neural network, and a feature engineering approach, where a collection of hand-crafted features is input to a gradient boosting machine. We first show that both methods provide complementary information to some extent. Then, we use a simple late fusion strategy to combine both methods. We report classification accuracy of each method individually and the combined system on the TUT Acoustic Scenes 2017 dataset. The proposed fused system outperforms each of the individual methods and attains a classification accuracy of 72.8% on the evaluation set, improving the baseline system by 11.8%.


Active Learning for Sound Event Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes an active learning system for sound event detection (SED). It aims at maximizing the accuracy of a learned SED model with limited annotation effort. The proposed system analyzes an initially unlabeled audio dataset, from which it selects sound segments for manual annotation. The candidate segments are generated based on a proposed change point detection approach, and the selection is based on the principle of mismatch-first farthest-traversal. During the training of SED models, recordings are used as training inputs, preserving the long-term context for annotated segments. The proposed system clearly outperforms reference methods in the two datasets used for evaluation (TUT Rare Sound 2017 and TAU Spatial Sound 2019). Training with recordings as context outperforms training with only annotated segments. Mismatch-first farthest-traversal outperforms reference sample selection methods based on random sampling and uncertainty sampling. Remarkably, the required annotation effort can be greatly reduced on the dataset where target sound events are rare: by annotating only 2% of the training data, the achieved SED performance is similar to annotating all the training data.