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Learned D-AMP: Principled Neural Network based Compressive Image Recovery

Neural Information Processing Systems

Compressive image recovery is a challenging problem that requires fast and accurate algorithms. Recently, neural networks have been applied to this problem with promising results. By exploiting massively parallel GPU processing architectures and oodles of training data, they can run orders of magnitude faster than existing techniques. However, these methods are largely unprincipled black boxes that are difficult to train and often-times specific to a single measurement matrix. It was recently demonstrated that iterative sparse-signal-recovery algorithms can be ``unrolled’' to form interpretable deep networks. Taking inspiration from this work, we develop a novel neural network architecture that mimics the behavior of the denoising-based approximate message passing (D-AMP) algorithm. We call this new network {\em Learned} D-AMP (LDAMP). The LDAMP network is easy to train, can be applied to a variety of different measurement matrices, and comes with a state-evolution heuristic that accurately predicts its performance. Most importantly, it outperforms the state-of-the-art BM3D-AMP and NLR-CS algorithms in terms of both accuracy and run time. At high resolutions, and when used with sensing matrices that have fast implementations, LDAMP runs over $50\times$ faster than BM3D-AMP and hundreds of times faster than NLR-CS.


A Deep Learning Approach to Structured Signal Recovery

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we develop a new framework for sensing and recovering structured signals. In contrast to compressive sensing (CS) systems that employ linear measurements, sparse representations, and computationally complex convex/greedy algorithms, we introduce a deep learning framework that supports both linear and mildly nonlinear measurements, that learns a structured representation from training data, and that efficiently computes a signal estimate. In particular, we apply a stacked denoising autoencoder (SDA), as an unsupervised feature learner. SDA enables us to capture statistical dependencies between the different elements of certain signals and improve signal recovery performance as compared to the CS approach.


Sparse Signal Recovery for Binary Compressed Sensing by Majority Voting Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we propose majority voting neural networks for sparse signal recovery in binary compressed sensing. The majority voting neural network is composed of several independently trained feedforward neural networks employing the sigmoid function as an activation function. Our empirical study shows that a choice of a loss function used in training processes for the network is of prime importance. We found a loss function suitable for sparse signal recovery, which includes a cross entropy-like term and an $L_1$ regularized term. From the experimental results, we observed that the majority voting neural network achieves excellent recovery performance, which is approaching the optimal performance as the number of component nets grows. The simple architecture of the majority voting neural networks would be beneficial for both software and hardware implementations.


Learning to Optimize: A Primer and A Benchmark

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning to optimize (L2O) is an emerging approach that leverages machine learning to develop optimization methods, aiming at reducing the laborious iterations of hand engineering. It automates the design of an optimization method based on its performance on a set of training problems. This data-driven procedure generates methods that can efficiently solve problems similar to those in the training. In sharp contrast, the typical and traditional designs of optimization methods are theory-driven, so they obtain performance guarantees over the classes of problems specified by the theory. The difference makes L2O suitable for repeatedly solving a certain type of optimization problems over a specific distribution of data, while it typically fails on out-of-distribution problems. The practicality of L2O depends on the type of target optimization, the chosen architecture of the method to learn, and the training procedure. This new paradigm has motivated a community of researchers to explore L2O and report their findings. This article is poised to be the first comprehensive survey and benchmark of L2O for continuous optimization. We set up taxonomies, categorize existing works and research directions, present insights, and identify open challenges.


Robust Compressive Phase Retrieval via Deep Generative Priors

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a new framework to regularize the highly ill-posed and non-linear phase retrieval problem through deep generative priors using simple gradient descent algorithm. We experimentally show effectiveness of proposed algorithm for random Gaussian measurements (practically relevant in imaging through scattering media) and Fourier friendly measurements (relevant in optical set ups). We demonstrate that proposed approach achieves impressive results when compared with traditional hand engineered priors including sparsity and denoising frameworks for number of measurements and robustness against noise. Finally, we show the effectiveness of the proposed approach on a real transmission matrix dataset in an actual application of multiple scattering media imaging.