Time series forecasting is widely used in a multitude of domains. In this paper, we present four models to predict the stock price using the SPX index as input time series data. The martingale and ordinary linear models require the strongest assumption in stationarity which we use as baseline models. The generalized linear model requires lesser assumptions but is unable to outperform the martingale. In empirical testing, the RNN model performs the best comparing to other two models, because it will update the input through LSTM instantaneously, but also does not beat the martingale. In addition, we introduce an online to batch algorithm and discrepancy measure to inform readers the newest research in time series predicting method, which doesn't require any stationarity or non mixing assumptions in time series data. Finally, to apply these forecasting to practice, we introduce basic trading strategies that can create Win win and Zero sum situations.
T raditionally, mathematical formulations of dynamical systems in the context of Signal Processing and Control Theory have been a lynchpin of today's Financial Engineering. More recently, advances in sequential decision making, mainly through the concept of Reinforcement Learning, have been instrumental in the development of multistage stochastic optimization, a key component in sequential portfolio optimization (asset allocation) strategies. In this thesis, we develop a comprehensive account of the expressive power, modelling efficiency, and performance advantages of so called trading agents (i.e., Deep Soft Recurrent Q-Network (DSRQN) and Mixture of Score Machines (MSM)), based on both traditional system identification (model-based approach) as well as on context-independent agents (model-free approach). The analysis provides a conclusive support for the ability of model-free reinforcement learning methods to act as universal trading agents, which are not only capable of reducing the computational and memory complexity (owing to their linear scaling with size of the universe), but also serve as generalizing strategies across assets and markets, regardless of the trading universe on which they have been trained. The relatively low volume of daily returns in financial market data is addressed via data augmentation (a generative approach) and a choice of pre-training strategies, both of which are validated against current state-of-the-art models. For rigour, a risk-sensitive framework which includes transaction costs is considered, and its performance advantages are demonstrated in a variety of scenarios, from synthetic time-series (sinusoidal, sawtooth and chirp waves), ii simulated market series (surrogate data based), through to real market data (S&P 500 and EURO STOXX 50). The analysis and simulations confirm the superiority of universal model-free reinforcement learning agents over current portfolio management model in asset allocation strategies, with the achieved performance advantage of as much as 9.2% in annualized cumulative returns and 13.4% in annualized Sharpe Ratio.
Modeling financial time series by stochastic processes is a challenging task and a central area of research in financial mathematics. In this paper, we break through this barrier and present Quant GANs, a data-driven model which is inspired by the recent success of generative adversarial networks (GANs). Quant GANs consist of a generator and discriminator function which utilize temporal convolutional networks (TCNs) and thereby achieve to capture longer-ranging dependencies such as the presence of volatility clusters. Furthermore, the generator function is explicitly constructed such that the induced stochastic process allows a transition to its risk-neutral distribution. Our numerical results highlight that distributional properties for small and large lags are in an excellent agreement and dependence properties such as volatility clusters, leverage effects, and serial autocorrelations can be generated by the generator function of Quant GANs, demonstrably in high fidelity.
In this paper we propose a deep recurrent architecture for the probabilistic modelling of high-frequency market prices, important for the risk management of automated trading systems. Our proposed architecture incorporates probabilistic mixture models into deep recurrent neural networks. The resulting deep mixture models simultaneously address several practical challenges important in the development of automated high-frequency trading strategies that were previously neglected in the literature: 1) probabilistic forecasting of the price movements; 2) single objective prediction of both the direction and size of the price movements. We train our models on high-frequency Bitcoin market data and evaluate them against benchmark models obtained from the literature. We show that our model outperforms the benchmark models in both a metric-based test and in a simulated trading scenario
Department of Mathematics University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0112 Abstract We propose diffusion networks, a type of recurrent neural network with probabilistic dynamics, as models for learning natural signals that are continuous in time and space. We give a formula for the gradient of the log-likelihood of a path with respect to the drift parameters for a diffusion network. This gradient can be used to optimize diffusion networks in the nonequilibrium regime for a wide variety of problems paralleling techniques which have succeeded in engineering fields such as system identification, state estimation and signal filtering. An aspect of this work which is of particular interestto computational neuroscience and hardware design is that with a suitable choice of activation function, e.g., quasi-linear sigmoidal, the gradient formula is local in space and time. 1 Introduction Many natural signals, like pixel gray-levels, line orientations, object position, velocity andshape parameters, are well described as continuous-time continuous-valued stochastic processes; however, the neural network literature has seldom explored the continuous stochastic case. Since the solutions to many decision theoretic problems of interest are naturally formulated using probability distributions, it is desirable to have a flexible framework for approximating probability distributions on continuous pathspaces.