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Assessing the Performance of Deep Learning Algorithms for Newsvendor Problem

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In retailer management, the Newsvendor problem has widely attracted attention as one of basic inventory models. In the traditional approach to solving this problem, it relies on the probability distribution of the demand. In theory, if the probability distribution is known, the problem can be considered as fully solved. However, in any real world scenario, it is almost impossible to even approximate or estimate a better probability distribution for the demand. In recent years, researchers start adopting machine learning approach to learn a demand prediction model by using other feature information. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning that optimizes the demand quantities for products based on feature information. We demonstrate that the original Newsvendor loss function as the training objective outperforms the recently suggested quadratic loss function. The new algorithm has been assessed on both the synthetic data and real-world data, demonstrating better performance.


Privacy Risk in Machine Learning: Analyzing the Connection to Overfitting

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning algorithms, when applied to sensitive data, pose a distinct threat to privacy. A growing body of prior work demonstrates that models produced by these algorithms may leak specific private information in the training data to an attacker, either through the models' structure or their observable behavior. However, the underlying cause of this privacy risk is not well understood beyond a handful of anecdotal accounts that suggest overfitting and influence might play a role. This paper examines the effect that overfitting and influence have on the ability of an attacker to learn information about the training data from machine learning models, either through training set membership inference or attribute inference attacks. Using both formal and empirical analyses, we illustrate a clear relationship between these factors and the privacy risk that arises in several popular machine learning algorithms. We find that overfitting is sufficient to allow an attacker to perform membership inference and, when the target attribute meets certain conditions about its influence, attribute inference attacks. Interestingly, our formal analysis also shows that overfitting is not necessary for these attacks and begins to shed light on what other factors may be in play. Finally, we explore the connection between membership inference and attribute inference, showing that there are deep connections between the two that lead to effective new attacks.


Hybrid Adaptive Fuzzy Extreme Learning Machine for text classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In traditional ELM and its improved versions suffer from the problems of outliers or noises due to overfitting and imbalance due to distribution. We propose a novel hybrid adaptive fuzzy ELM(HA-FELM), which introduces a fuzzy membership function to the traditional ELM method to deal with the above problems. We define the fuzzy membership function not only basing on the distance between each sample and the center of the class but also the density among samples which based on the quantum harmonic oscillator model. The proposed fuzzy membership function overcomes the shortcoming of the traditional fuzzy membership function and could make itself adjusted according to the specific distribution of different samples adaptively. Experiments show the proposed HA-FELM can produce better performance than SVM, ELM, and RELM in text classification.


Stolen Memories: Leveraging Model Memorization for Calibrated White-Box Membership Inference

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Membership inference (MI) attacks exploit a learned model's lack of generalization to infer whether a given sample was in the model's training set. Known MI attacks generally work by casting the attacker's goal as a supervised learning problem, training an attack model from predictions generated by the target model, or by others like it. However, we find that these attacks do not often provide a meaningful basis for confidently inferring training set membership, as the attack models are not well-calibrated. Moreover, these attacks do not significantly outperform a trivial attack that predicts that a point is a member if and only if the model correctly predicts its label. In this work we present well-calibrated MI attacks that allow the attacker to accurately control the minimum confidence with which positive membership inferences are made. Our attacks take advantage of white-box information about the target model and leverage new insights about how overfitting occurs in deep neural networks; namely, we show how a model's idiosyncratic use of features can provide evidence for membership. Experiments on seven real-world datasets show that our attacks support calibration for high-confidence inferences, while outperforming previous MI attacks in terms of accuracy. Finally, we show that our attacks achieve non-trivial advantage on some models with low generalization error, including those trained with small-epsilon-differential privacy; for large-epsilon (epsilon=16, as reported in some industrial settings), the attack performs comparably to unprotected models.


Modelling and Quantifying Membership Information Leakage in Machine Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning models have been shown to be vulnerable to membership inference attacks, i.e., inferring whether individuals' data have been used for training models. The lack of understanding about factors contributing success of these attacks motivates the need for modelling membership information leakage using information theory and for investigating properties of machine learning models and training algorithms that can reduce membership information leakage. We use conditional mutual information leakage to measure the amount of information leakage from the trained machine learning model about the presence of an individual in the training dataset. We devise an upper bound for this measure of information leakage using Kullback--Leibler divergence that is more amenable to numerical computation. We prove a direct relationship between the Kullback--Leibler membership information leakage and the probability of success for a hypothesis-testing adversary examining whether a particular data record belongs to the training dataset of a machine learning model. We show that the mutual information leakage is a decreasing function of the training dataset size and the regularization weight. We also prove that, if the sensitivity of the machine learning model (defined in terms of the derivatives of the fitness with respect to model parameters) is high, more membership information is potentially leaked. This illustrates that complex models, such as deep neural networks, are more susceptible to membership inference attacks in comparison to simpler models with fewer degrees of freedom. We show that the amount of the membership information leakage is reduced by $\mathcal{O}(\log^{1/2}(\delta^{-1})\epsilon^{-1})$ when using Gaussian $(\epsilon,\delta)$-differentially-private additive noises.