All-day and all-weather navigation is a critical capability for autonomous driving, which requires proper reaction to varied environmental conditions and complex agent behaviors. Recently, with the rise of deep learning, end-to-end control for autonomous vehicles has been well studied. However, most works are solely based on visual information, which can be degraded by challenging illumination conditions such as dim light or total darkness. In addition, they usually generate and apply deterministic control commands without considering the uncertainties in the future. In this paper, based on imitation learning, we propose a probabilistic driving model with ultiperception capability utilizing the information from the camera, lidar and radar. We further evaluate its driving performance online on our new driving benchmark, which includes various environmental conditions (e.g., urban and rural areas, traffic densities, weather and times of the day) and dynamic obstacles (e.g., vehicles, pedestrians, motorcyclists and bicyclists). The results suggest that our proposed model outperforms baselines and achieves excellent generalization performance in unseen environments with heavy traffic and extreme weather.
Urmson, Chris (Carnegie Mellon University) | Baker, Chris (Carnegie Mellon University) | Dolan, John (Carnegie Mellon University) | Rybski, Paul (Carnegie Mellon University) | Salesky, Bryan (Carnegie Mellon University) | Whittaker, William (Carnegie Mellon University) | Ferguson, Dave (Two Sigma Investments) | Darms, Michael (Carnegie Mellon University)
The DARPA Urban Challenge was a competition to develop autonomous vehicles capable of safely, reliably and robustly driving in traffic. In this article we introduce Boss, the autonomous vehicle that won the challenge. Boss is complex artificially intelligent software system embodied in a 2007 Chevy Tahoe. To navigate safely, the vehicle builds a model of the world around it in real time. This model is used to generate safe routes and motion plans in both on roads and in unstructured zones. An essential part of Boss’ success stems from its ability to safely handle both abnormal situations and system glitches.
In this article we introduce Boss, the autonomous vehicle that won the challenge. Boss is a complex artificially intelligent software system embodied in a 2007 Chevy Tahoe. To navigate safely, the vehicle builds a model of the world around it in real time. This model is used to generate safe routes and motion plans both on roads and in unstructured zones. An essential part of Boss's success stems from its ability to safely handle both abnormal situations and system glitches.
Academic research in the field of autonomous vehicles has reached high popularity in recent years related to several topics as sensor technologies, V2X communications, safety, security, decision making, control, and even legal and standardization rules. Besides classic control design approaches, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning methods are present in almost all of these fields. Another part of research focuses on different layers of Motion Planning, such as strategic decisions, trajectory planning, and control. A wide range of techniques in Machine Learning itself have been developed, and this article describes one of these fields, Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). The paper provides insight into the hierarchical motion planning problem and describes the basics of DRL. The main elements of designing such a system are the modeling of the environment, the modeling abstractions, the description of the state and the perception models, the appropriate rewarding, and the realization of the underlying neural network. The paper describes vehicle models, simulation possibilities and computational requirements. Strategic decisions on different layers and the observation models, e.g., continuous and discrete state representations, grid-based, and camera-based solutions are presented. The paper surveys the state-of-art solutions systematized by the different tasks and levels of autonomous driving, such as car-following, lane-keeping, trajectory following, merging, or driving in dense traffic. Finally, open questions and future challenges are discussed.
Autonomous Vehicles (AV) are expected to bring considerable benefits to society, such as traffic optimization and accidents reduction. They rely heavily on advances in many Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches and techniques. However, while some researchers in this field believe AI is the core element to enhance safety, others believe AI imposes new challenges to assure the safety of these new AI-based systems and applications. In this non-convergent context, this paper presents a systematic literature review to paint a clear picture of the state of the art of the literature in AI on AV safety. Based on an initial sample of 4870 retrieved papers, 59 studies were selected as the result of the selection criteria detailed in the paper. The shortlisted studies were then mapped into six categories to answer the proposed research questions. An AV system model was proposed and applied to orient the discussions about the SLR findings. As a main result, we have reinforced our preliminary observation about the necessity of considering a serious safety agenda for the future studies on AI-based AV systems.