Yeh, Peter Z. (Nuance Communications) | Ramachandran, Deepak (Nuance Communications) | Douglas, Benjamin (Nuance Communications) | Ratnaparkhi, Adwait (Nuance Communications) | Jarrold, William (Nuance Communications) | Provine, Ronald (Nuance Communications) | Patel-Schneider, Peter F. (Nuance Communications) | Laverty, Stephen (Nuance Communications) | Tikku, Nirvana (Nuance Communications) | Brown, Sean (Nuance Communications) | Mendel, Jeremy (Nuance Communications) | Emfield, Adam (Nuance Communications)
In this article, we report on a multiphase R&D effort to develop a conversational second screen application for TV program discovery. Our goal is to share with the community the breadth of artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language (NL) technologies required to develop such an application along with learnings from target end-users. We first give an overview of our application from the perspective of the end-user. We then present the architecture of our application along with the main AI and NL components, which were developed over multiple phases. The first phase focuses on enabling core functionality such as effectively finding programs matching the user’s intent. The second phase focuses on enabling dialog with the user. Finally, we present two user studies, corresponding to these two phases. The results from both studies demonstrate the effectiveness of our application in the target domain.
Keeping up with threat intelligence is a must for a security analyst today. There is a volume of information present in `the wild' that affects an organization. We need to develop an artificial intelligence system that scours the intelligence sources, to keep the analyst updated about various threats that pose a risk to her organization. A security analyst who is better `tapped in' can be more effective. In this paper we present, Cyber-All-Intel an artificial intelligence system to aid a security analyst. It is a system for knowledge extraction, representation and analytics in an end-to-end pipeline grounded in the cybersecurity informatics domain. It uses multiple knowledge representations like, vector spaces and knowledge graphs in a 'VKG structure' to store incoming intelligence. The system also uses neural network models to pro-actively improve its knowledge. We have also created a query engine and an alert system that can be used by an analyst to find actionable cybersecurity insights.
The SPARQL query language is currently being extended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) with so-called entailment regimes. An entailment regime defines how queries are evaluated under more expressive semantics than SPARQL's standard simple entailment, which is based on subgraph matching. The queries are very expressive since variables can occur within complex concepts and can also bind to concept or role names. In this paper, we describe a sound and complete algorithm for the OWL Direct Semantics entailment regime. We further propose several novel optimizations such as strategies for determining a good query execution order, query rewriting techniques, and show how specialized OWL reasoning tasks and the concept and role hierarchy can be used to reduce the query execution time. For determining a good execution order, we propose a cost-based model, where the costs are based on information about the instances of concepts and roles that are extracted from a model abstraction built by an OWL reasoner. We present two ordering strategies: a static and a dynamic one. For the dynamic case, we improve the performance by exploiting an individual clustering approach that allows for computing the cost functions based on one individual sample from a cluster. We provide a prototypical implementation and evaluate the efficiency of the proposed optimizations. Our experimental study shows that the static ordering usually outperforms the dynamic one when accurate statistics are available. This changes, however, when the statistics are less accurate, e.g., due to nondeterministic reasoning decisions. For queries that go beyond conjunctive instance queries we observe an improvement of up to three orders of magnitude due to the proposed optimizations.
Here we describe the SHARE system, a web service based framework for distributed querying and reasoning on the semantic web. The main innovations of SHARE are: (1) the extension of a SPARQL query engine to perform on-demand data retrieval from web services, and (2) the extension of an OWL reasoner to test property restrictions by means of web service invocations. In addition to enabling queries across distributed datasets, the system allows for a target dataset that is significantly larger than is possible under current, centralized approaches. Although the architecture is equally applicable to all types of data, the SHARE system targets bioinformatics, due to the large number of interoperable web services that are already available in this area. SHARE is built entirely on semantic web standards, and is the successor of the BioMOBY project.