SPARQL is the de facto language for querying RDF data, since its standardization in 2008. A new version, called SPARQL 1.1, was released in 2013, with the aim of enriching the 2008 language with reasoning capabilities to deal with RDFS and OWL vocabularies, and a mechanism to express navigation patterns through regular expressions. However, SPARQL 1.1 is not powerful enough for expressing some relevant navigation patterns, and it misses a general form of recursion. In this work, we focus on OWL 2 QL and we propose TriQ-Lite 1.0, a tractable rule-based formalism that supports the above functionalities, and thus it can be used for querying RDF data. Unlike existing composite approaches, our formalism has simple syntax and semantics in the same spirit as good old Datalog.
Vadalog is a system for performing complex reasoning tasks such as those required in advanced knowledge graphs. The logical core of the underlying Vadalog language is the warded fragment of tuple-generating dependencies (TGDs). This formalism ensures tractable reasoning in data complexity, while a recent analysis focusing on a practical implementation led to the reasoning algorithm around which the Vadalog system is built. A fundamental question that has emerged in the context of Vadalog is the following: can we limit the recursion allowed by wardedness in order to obtain a formalism that provides a convenient syntax for expressing useful recursive statements, and at the same time achieves space-efficiency? After analyzing several real-life examples of warded sets of TGDs provided by our industrial partners, as well as recent benchmarks, we observed that recursion is often used in a restricted way: the body of a TGD contains at most one atom whose predicate is mutually recursive with a predicate in the head. We show that this type of recursion, known as piece-wise linear in the Datalog literature, is the answer to our main question. We further show that piece-wise linear recursion alone, without the wardedness condition, is not enough as it leads to the undecidability of reasoning. We finally study the relative expressiveness of the query languages based on (piece-wise linear) warded sets of TGDs.
Over the past years, there has been a resurgence of Datalog-based systems in the database community as well as in industry. In this context, it has been recognized that to handle the complex knowl\-edge-based scenarios encountered today, such as reasoning over large knowledge graphs, Datalog has to be extended with features such as existential quantification. Yet, Datalog-based reasoning in the presence of existential quantification is in general undecidable. Many efforts have been made to define decidable fragments. Warded Datalog+/- is a very promising one, as it captures PTIME complexity while allowing ontological reasoning. Yet so far, no implementation of Warded Datalog+/- was available. In this paper we present the Vadalog system, a Datalog-based system for performing complex logic reasoning tasks, such as those required in advanced knowledge graphs. The Vadalog system is Oxford's contribution to the VADA research programme, a joint effort of the universities of Oxford, Manchester and Edinburgh and around 20 industrial partners. As the main contribution of this paper, we illustrate the first implementation of Warded Datalog+/-, a high-performance Datalog+/- system utilizing an aggressive termination control strategy. We also provide a comprehensive experimental evaluation.
Datalog+/- is a conceptually very simple formalism that extends plain Datalog with features such as existential quantifiers, equalities, and the falsum in rule heads and, at the same time, restricts the rule syntax so as to achieve decidability and, when required, tractability. Datalog+/- provides a uniform framework for query answering and reasoning with incomplete data. It generalizes disparate other KR formalisms such as plain Datalog, description logics (DLs), in particular, DL-Lite and EL, F-Logic Lite, highly relevant fragments of UML class diagrams, data-exchange formalisms, graph query languages such as SPARQL, and so on. The goal of this paper is to give concise answers to frequently asked questions about Datalog+/-.
Datalog is one of the best-known rule-based languages, and extensions of it are used in a wide context of applications. An important Datalog extension is Disjunctive Datalog, which significantly increases the expressivity of the basic language. Disjunctive Datalog is useful in a wide range of applications, ranging from Databases (e.g., Data Integration) to Artificial Intelligence (e.g., diagnosis and planning under incomplete knowledge). However, in recent years an important shortcoming of Datalog-based languages became evident, e.g. in the context of data-integration (consistent query-answering, ontology-based data access) and Semantic Web applications: The language does not permit any generation of and reasoning with unnamed individuals in an obvious way. In general, it is weak in supporting many cases of existential quantification. To overcome this problem, Datalogex has recently been proposed, which extends traditional Datalog by existential quantification in rule heads. In this work, we propose a natural extension of Disjunctive Datalog and Datalogex, called Datalogexor, which allows both disjunctions and existential quantification in rule heads and is therefore an attractive language for knowledge representation and reasoning, especially in domains where ontology-based reasoning is needed. We formally define syntax and semantics of the language Datalogexor, and provide a notion of instantiation, which we prove to be adequate for Datalogexor. A main issue of Datalogex and hence also of Datalogexor is that decidability is no longer guaranteed for typical reasoning tasks. In order to address this issue, we identify many decidable fragments of the language, which extend, in a natural way, analog classes defined in the non-disjunctive case. Moreover, we carry out an in-depth complexity analysis, deriving interesting results which range from Logarithmic Space to Exponential Time.