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Receiver Architectures for MIMO-OFDM Based on a Combined VMP-SP Algorithm

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Iterative information processing, either based on heuristics or analytical frameworks, has been shown to be a very powerful tool for the design of efficient, yet feasible, wireless receiver architectures. Within this context, algorithms performing message-passing on a probabilistic graph, such as the sum-product (SP) and variational message passing (VMP) algorithms, have become increasingly popular. In this contribution, we apply a combined VMP-SP message-passing technique to the design of receivers for MIMO-ODFM systems. The message-passing equations of the combined scheme can be obtained from the equations of the stationary points of a constrained region-based free energy approximation. When applied to a MIMO-OFDM probabilistic model, we obtain a generic receiver architecture performing iterative channel weight and noise precision estimation, equalization and data decoding. We show that this generic scheme can be particularized to a variety of different receiver structures, ranging from high-performance iterative structures to low complexity receivers. This allows for a flexible design of the signal processing specially tailored for the requirements of each specific application. The numerical assessment of our solutions, based on Monte Carlo simulations, corroborates the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their superiority to heuristic approaches.


Distributed Iterative Processing for Interference Channels with Receiver Cooperation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a framework for the derivation and evaluation of distributed iterative algorithms for receiver cooperation in interference-limited wireless systems. Our approach views the processing within and collaboration between receivers as the solution to an inference problem in the probabilistic model of the whole system. The probabilistic model is formulated to explicitly incorporate the receivers' ability to share information of a predefined type. We employ a recently proposed unified message-passing tool to infer the variables of interest in the factor graph representation of the probabilistic model. The exchange of information between receivers arises in the form of passing messages along some specific edges of the factor graph; the rate of updating and passing these messages determines the communication overhead associated with cooperation. Simulation results illustrate the high performance of the proposed algorithm even with a low number of message exchanges between receivers.


Message-Passing Algorithms for Channel Estimation and Decoding Using Approximate Inference

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We design iterative receiver schemes for a generic wireless communication system by treating channel estimation and information decoding as an inference problem in graphical models. We introduce a recently proposed inference framework that combines belief propagation (BP) and the mean field (MF) approximation and includes these algorithms as special cases. We also show that the expectation propagation and expectation maximization algorithms can be embedded in the BP-MF framework with slight modifications. By applying the considered inference algorithms to our probabilistic model, we derive four different message-passing receiver schemes. Our numerical evaluation demonstrates that the receiver based on the BP-MF framework and its variant based on BP-EM yield the best compromise between performance, computational complexity and numerical stability among all candidate algorithms.


Data-Driven Factor Graphs for Deep Symbol Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many important schemes in signal processing and communications, ranging from the BCJR algorithm to the Kalman filter, are instances of factor graph methods. This family of algorithms is based on recursive message passing-based computations carried out over graphical models, representing a factorization of the underlying statistics. Consequently, in order to implement these algorithms, one must have accurate knowledge of the statistical model of the considered signals. In this work we propose to implement factor graph methods in a data-driven manner. In particular, we propose to use machine learning (ML) tools to learn the factor graph, instead of the overall system task, which in turn is used for inference by message passing over the learned graph. We apply the proposed approach to learn the factor graph representing a finite-memory channel, demonstrating the resulting ability to implement BCJR detection in a data-driven fashion. We demonstrate that the proposed system, referred to as BCJRNet, learns to implement the BCJR algorithm from a small training set, and that the resulting receiver exhibits improved robustness to inaccurate training compared to the conventional channel-model-based receiver operating under the same level of uncertainty. Our results indicate that by utilizing ML tools to learn factor graphs from labeled data, one can implement a broad range of model-based algorithms, which traditionally require full knowledge of the underlying statistics, in a data-driven fashion.


A Factor Graph Approach to Joint OFDM Channel Estimation and Decoding in Impulsive Noise Environments

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a novel receiver for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions in impulsive noise environments. Impulsive noise arises in many modern wireless and wireline communication systems, such as Wi-Fi and powerline communications, due to uncoordinated interference that is much stronger than thermal noise. We first show that the bit-error-rate optimal receiver jointly estimates the propagation channel coefficients, the noise impulses, the finite-alphabet symbols, and the unknown bits. We then propose a near-optimal yet computationally tractable approach to this joint estimation problem using loopy belief propagation. In particular, we merge the recently proposed "generalized approximate message passing" (GAMP) algorithm with the forward-backward algorithm and soft-input soft-output decoding using a "turbo" approach. Numerical results indicate that the proposed receiver drastically outperforms existing receivers under impulsive noise and comes within 1 dB of the matched-filter bound. Meanwhile, with N tones, the proposed factor-graph-based receiver has only O(N log N) complexity, and it can be parallelized.