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Intentional Attention Mask Transformation for Robust CNN Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Convolutional Neural Networks have achieved impressive results in various tasks, but interpreting the internal mechanism is a challenging problem. To tackle this problem, we exploit a multi-channel attention mechanism in feature space. Our network architecture allows us to obtain an attention mask for each feature while existing CNN visualization methods provide only a common attention mask for all features. We apply the proposed multi-channel attention mechanism to multi-attribute recognition task. We can obtain different attention mask for each feature and for each attribute. Those analyses give us deeper insight into the feature space of CNNs. Furthermore, our proposed attention mechanism naturally derives a method for improving the robustness of CNNs. From the observation of feature space based on the proposed attention mask, we demonstrate that we can obtain robust CNNs by intentionally emphasizing features that are important for attributes. The experimental results for the benchmark dataset show that the proposed method gives high human interpretability while accurately grasping the attributes of the data, and improves network robustness.


Interpretation of Feature Space using Multi-Channel Attentional Sub-Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Convolutional Neural Networks have achieved impressive results in various tasks, but interpreting the internal mechanism is a challenging problem. To tackle this problem, we exploit a multi-channel attention mechanism in feature space. Our network architecture allows us to obtain an attention mask for each feature while existing CNN visualization methods provide only a common attention mask for all features. We apply the proposed multi-channel attention mechanism to multi-attribute recognition task. We can obtain different attention mask for each feature and for each attribute. Those analyses give us deeper insight into the feature space of CNNs. The experimental results for the benchmark dataset show that the proposed method gives high interpretability to humans while accurately grasping the attributes of the data.


Pedestrian Attribute Recognition: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recognizing pedestrian attributes is an important task in computer vision community due to it plays an important role in video surveillance. Many algorithms has been proposed to handle this task. The goal of this paper is to review existing works using traditional methods or based on deep learning networks. Firstly, we introduce the background of pedestrian attributes recognition (PAR, for short), including the fundamental concepts of pedestrian attributes and corresponding challenges. Secondly, we introduce existing benchmarks, including popular datasets and evaluation criterion. Thirdly, we analyse the concept of multi-task learning and multi-label learning, and also explain the relations between these two learning algorithms and pedestrian attribute recognition. We also review some popular network architectures which have widely applied in the deep learning community. Fourthly, we analyse popular solutions for this task, such as attributes group, part-based, \emph{etc}. Fifthly, we shown some applications which takes pedestrian attributes into consideration and achieve better performance. Finally, we summarized this paper and give several possible research directions for pedestrian attributes recognition. The project page of this paper can be found from the following website: \url{https://sites.google.com/view/ahu-pedestrianattributes/}.


Explaining Explanations: An Approach to Evaluating Interpretability of Machine Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

There has recently been a surge of work in explanatory artificial intelligence (XAI). This research area tackles the important problem that complex machines and algorithms often cannot provide insights into their behavior and thought processes. XAI allows users and parts of the internal system to be more transparent, providing explanations of their decisions in some level of detail. These explanations are important to ensure algorithmic fairness, identify potential bias/problems in the training data, and to ensure that the algorithms perform as expected. However, explanations produced by these systems is neither standardized nor systematically assessed. In an effort to create best practices and identify open challenges, we provide our definition of explainability and show how it can be used to classify existing literature. We discuss why current approaches to explanatory methods especially for deep neural networks are insufficient. Finally, based on our survey, we conclude with suggested future research directions for explanatory artificial intelligence.


Causal Interpretability for Machine Learning -- Problems, Methods and Evaluation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning models have had discernible achievements in a myriad of applications. However, most of these models are black-boxes, and it is obscure how the decisions are made by them. This makes the models unreliable and untrustworthy. To provide insights into the decision making processes of these models, a variety of traditional interpretable models have been proposed. Moreover, to generate more human-friendly explanations, recent work on interpretability tries to answer questions related to causality such as "Why does this model makes such decisions?" or "Was it a specific feature that caused the decision made by the model?". In this work, models that aim to answer causal questions are referred to as causal interpretable models. The existing surveys have covered concepts and methodologies of traditional interpretability. In this work, we present a comprehensive survey on causal interpretable models from the aspects of the problems and methods. In addition, this survey provides in-depth insights into the existing evaluation metrics for measuring interpretability, which can help practitioners understand for what scenarios each evaluation metric is suitable.