AAAI Conferences

Sequence-to-sequence learning is a popular research area in deep learning, such as video captioning and speech recognition. Existing methods model this learning as a mapping process by first encoding the input sequence to a fixed-sized vector, followed by decoding the target sequence from the vector. Although simple and intuitive, such mapping model is task-specific, unable to be directly used for different tasks. In this paper, we propose a star-like framework for general and flexible sequence-to-sequence learning, where different types of media contents (the peripheral nodes) could be encoded to and decoded from a shared latent representation (SLR) (the central node). This is inspired by the fact that human brain could learn and express an abstract concept in different ways. The media-invariant property of SLR could be seen as a high-level regularization on the intermediate vector, enforcing it to not only capture the latent representation intra each individual media like the auto-encoders, but also their transitions like the mapping models. Moreover, the SLR model is content-specific, which means it only needs to be trained once for a dataset, while used for different tasks. We show how to train a SLR model via dropout and use it for different sequence-to-sequence tasks. Our SLR model is validated on the Youtube2Text and MSR-VTT datasets, achieving superior performance on video-to-sentence task, and the first sentence-to-video results.

Fast Structured Decoding for Sequence Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

Autoregressive sequence models achieve state-of-the-art performance in domains like machine translation. However, due to the autoregressive factorization nature, these models suffer from heavy latency during inference. Recently, non-autoregressive sequence models were proposed to speed up the inference time. However, these models assume that the decoding process of each token is conditionally independent of others. Such a generation process sometimes makes the output sentence inconsistent, and thus the learned non-autoregressive models could only achieve inferior accuracy compared to their autoregressive counterparts.

Accurate and Diverse Sampling of Sequences based on a "Best of Many" Sample Objective Machine Learning

For autonomous agents to successfully operate in the real world, anticipation of future events and states of their environment is a key competence. This problem has been formalized as a sequence extrapolation problem, where a number of observations are used to predict the sequence into the future. Real-world scenarios demand a model of uncertainty of such predictions, as predictions become increasingly uncertain -- in particular on long time horizons. While impressive results have been shown on point estimates, scenarios that induce multi-modal distributions over future sequences remain challenging. Our work addresses these challenges in a Gaussian Latent Variable model for sequence prediction. Our core contribution is a "Best of Many" sample objective that leads to more accurate and more diverse predictions that better capture the true variations in real-world sequence data. Beyond our analysis of improved model fit, our models also empirically outperform prior work on three diverse tasks ranging from traffic scenes to weather data.

Adversarial Attacks on Remote User Authentication Using Behavioural Mouse Dynamics Machine Learning

Mouse dynamics is a potential means of authenticating users. Typically, the authentication process is based on classical machine learning techniques, but recently, deep learning techniques have been introduced for this purpose. Although prior research has demonstrated how machine learning and deep learning algorithms can be bypassed by carefully crafted adversarial samples, there has been very little research performed on the topic of behavioural biometrics in the adversarial domain. In an attempt to address this gap, we built a set of attacks, which are applications of several generative approaches, to construct adversarial mouse trajectories that bypass authentication models. These generated mouse sequences will serve as the adversarial samples in the context of our experiments. We also present an analysis of the attack approaches we explored, explaining their limitations. In contrast to previous work, we consider the attacks in a more realistic and challenging setting in which an attacker has access to recorded user data but does not have access to the authentication model or its outputs. We explore three different attack strategies: 1) statistics-based, 2) imitation-based, and 3) surrogate-based; we show that they are able to evade the functionality of the authentication models, thereby impacting their robustness adversely. We show that imitation-based attacks often perform better than surrogate-based attacks, unless, however, the attacker can guess the architecture of the authentication model. In such cases, we propose a potential detection mechanism against surrogate-based attacks.

MacNet: Transferring Knowledge from Machine Comprehension to Sequence-to-Sequence Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

Machine Comprehension (MC) is one of the core problems in natural language processing, requiring both understanding of the natural language and knowledge about the world. Rapid progress has been made since the release of several benchmark datasets, and recently the state-of-the-art models even surpass human performance on the well-known SQuAD evaluation. In this paper, we transfer knowledge learned from machine comprehension to the sequence-to-sequence tasks to deepen the understanding of the text. We propose MacNet: a novel encoder-decoder supplementary architecture to the widely used attention-based sequence-to-sequence models. Experiments on neural machine translation (NMT) and abstractive text summarization show that our proposed framework can significantly improve the performance of the baseline models, and our method for the abstractive text summarization achieves the state-of-the-art results on the Gigaword dataset.