Collaborating Authors

Emotion Recognition with Machine Learning Using EEG Signals Machine Learning

In this research, an emotion recognition system is developed based on valence/arousal model using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. EEG signals are decomposed into the gamma, beta, alpha and theta frequency bands using discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and spectral features are extracted from each frequency band. Principle component analysis (PCA) is applied to the extracted features by preserving the same dimensionality, as a transform, to make the features mutually uncorrelated. Support vector machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and artificial neural network (ANN) are used to classify emotional states. The cross-validated SVM with radial basis function (RBF) kernel using extracted features of 10 EEG channels, performs with 91.3% accuracy for arousal and 91.1% accuracy for valence, both in the beta frequency band. Our approach shows better performance compared to existing algorithms applied to the "DEAP" dataset.

GANSER: A Self-supervised Data Augmentation Framework for EEG-based Emotion Recognition Artificial Intelligence

The data scarcity problem in Electroencephalography (EEG) based affective computing results into difficulty in building an effective model with high accuracy and stability using machine learning algorithms especially deep learning models. Data augmentation has recently achieved considerable performance improvement for deep learning models: increased accuracy, stability, and reduced over-fitting. In this paper, we propose a novel data augmentation framework, namely Generative Adversarial Network-based Self-supervised Data Augmentation (GANSER). As the first to combine adversarial training with self-supervised learning for EEG-based emotion recognition, the proposed framework can generate high-quality and high-diversity simulated EEG samples. In particular, we utilize adversarial training to learn an EEG generator and force the generated EEG signals to approximate the distribution of real samples, ensuring the quality of augmented samples. A transformation function is employed to mask parts of EEG signals and force the generator to synthesize potential EEG signals based on the remaining parts, to produce a wide variety of samples. The masking possibility during transformation is introduced as prior knowledge to guide to extract distinguishable features for simulated EEG signals and generalize the classifier to the augmented sample space. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate our proposed method can help emotion recognition for performance gain and achieve state-of-the-art results.

Automatic Emotion Recognition (AER) System based on Two-Level Ensemble of Lightweight Deep CNN Models Machine Learning

Emotions play a crucial role in human interaction, health care and security investigations and monitoring. Automatic emotion recognition (AER) using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an effective method for decoding the real emotions, which are independent of body gestures, but it is a challenging problem. Several automatic emotion recognition systems have been proposed, which are based on traditional hand-engineered approaches and their performances are very poor. Motivated by the outstanding performance of deep learning (DL) in many recognition tasks, we introduce an AER system (Deep-AER) based on EEG brain signals using DL. A DL model involves a large number of learnable parameters, and its training needs a large dataset of EEG signals, which is difficult to acquire for AER problem. To overcome this problem, we proposed a lightweight pyramidal one-dimensional convolutional neural network (LP-1D-CNN) model, which involves a small number of learnable parameters. Using LP-1D-CNN, we build a two level ensemble model. In the first level of the ensemble, each channel is scanned incrementally by LP-1D-CNN to generate predictions, which are fused using majority vote. The second level of the ensemble combines the predictions of all channels of an EEG signal using majority vote for detecting the emotion state. We validated the effectiveness and robustness of Deep-AER using DEAP, a benchmark dataset for emotion recognition research. The results indicate that FRONT plays dominant role in AER and over this region, Deep-AER achieved the accuracies of 98.43% and 97.65% for two AER problems, i.e., high valence vs low valence (HV vs LV) and high arousal vs low arousal (HA vs LA), respectively. The comparison reveals that Deep-AER outperforms the state-of-the-art systems with large margin. The Deep-AER system will be helpful in monitoring for health care and security investigations.

Utilizing Deep Learning Towards Multi-modal Bio-sensing and Vision-based Affective Computing Machine Learning

In recent years, the use of bio-sensing signals such as electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. have garnered interest towards applications in affective computing. The parallel trend of deep-learning has led to a huge leap in performance towards solving various vision-based research problems such as object detection. Yet, these advances in deep-learning have not adequately translated into bio-sensing research. This work applies novel deep-learning-based methods to various bio-sensing and video data of four publicly available multi-modal emotion datasets. For each dataset, we first individually evaluate the emotion-classification performance obtained by each modality. We then evaluate the performance obtained by fusing the features from these modalities. We show that our algorithms outperform the results reported by other studies for emotion/valence/arousal/liking classification on DEAP and MAHNOB-HCI datasets and set up benchmarks for the newer AMIGOS and DREAMER datasets. We also evaluate the performance of our algorithms by combining the datasets and by using transfer learning to show that the proposed method overcomes the inconsistencies between the datasets. Hence, we do a thorough analysis of multi-modal affective data from more than 120 subjects and 2,800 trials. Finally, utilizing a convolution-deconvolution network, we propose a new technique towards identifying salient brain regions corresponding to various affective states.

EEG-Based Emotion Recognition Using Regularized Graph Neural Networks Artificial Intelligence

EEG signals measure the neuronal activities on different brain regions via electrodes. Many existing studies on EEG-based emotion recognition do not exploit the topological structure of EEG signals. In this paper, we propose a regularized graph neural network (RGNN) for EEG-based emotion recognition, which is biologically supported and captures both local and global inter-channel relations. Specifically, we model the inter-channel relations in EEG signals via an adjacency matrix in our graph neural network where the connection and sparseness of the adjacency matrix are supported by the neurosicience theories of human brain organization. In addition, we propose two regularizers, namely node-wise domain adversarial training (NodeDAT) and emotion-aware distribution learning (EmotionDL), to improve the robustness of our model against cross-subject EEG variations and noisy labels, respectively. To thoroughly evaluate our model, we conduct extensive experiments in both subject-dependent and subject-independent classification settings on two public datasets: SEED and SEED-IV. Our model obtains better performance than competitive baselines such as SVM, DBN, DGCNN, BiDANN, and the state-of-the-art BiHDM in most experimental settings . Our model analysis demonstrates that the proposed biologically supported adjacency matrix and two regularizers contribute consistent and significant gain to the performance. Investigations on the neuronal activities reveal that pre-frontal, parietal and occipital regions may be the most informative regions for emotion recognition, which is consistent with relevant prior studies. In addition, experimental results suggest that global inter-channel relations between the left and right hemispheres are important for emotion recognition and local inter-channel relations between (FP1, AF3), (F6, F8) and (FP2, AF4) may also provide useful information.