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MAD-GAN: Multivariate Anomaly Detection for Time Series Data with Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The prevalence of networked sensors and actuators in many real-world systems such as smart buildings, factories, power plants, and data centers generate substantial amounts of multivariate time series data for these systems. The rich sensor data can be continuously monitored for intrusion events through anomaly detection. However, conventional threshold-based anomaly detection methods are inadequate due to the dynamic complexities of these systems, while supervised machine learning methods are unable to exploit the large amounts of data due to the lack of labeled data. On the other hand, current unsupervised machine learning approaches have not fully exploited the spatial-temporal correlation and other dependencies amongst the multiple variables (sensors/actuators) in the system for detecting anomalies. In this work, we propose an unsupervised multivariate anomaly detection method based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Instead of treating each data stream independently, our proposed MAD-GAN framework considers the entire variable set concurrently to capture the latent interactions amongst the variables. We also fully exploit both the generator and discriminator produced by the GAN, using a novel anomaly score called DR-score to detect anomalies by discrimination and reconstruction. We have tested our proposed MAD-GAN using two recent datasets collected from real-world CPS: the Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) and the Water Distribution (WADI) datasets. Our experimental results showed that the proposed MAD-GAN is effective in reporting anomalies caused by various cyber-intrusions compared in these complex real-world systems.


Anomaly Detection for imbalanced datasets with Deep Generative Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many important data analysis applications present with severely imbalanced datasets with respect to the target variable. A typical example is medical image analysis, where positive samples are scarce, while performance is commonly estimated against the correct detection of these positive examples. We approach this challenge by formulating the problem as anomaly detection with generative models. We train a generative model without supervision on the `negative' (common) datapoints and use this model to estimate the likelihood of unseen data. A successful model allows us to detect the `positive' case as low likelihood datapoints. In this position paper, we present the use of state-of-the-art deep generative models (GAN and VAE) for the estimation of a likelihood of the data. Our results show that on the one hand both GANs and VAEs are able to separate the `positive' and `negative' samples in the MNIST case. On the other hand, for the NLST case, neither GANs nor VAEs were able to capture the complexity of the data and discriminate anomalies at the level that this task requires. These results show that even though there are a number of successes presented in the literature for using generative models in similar applications, there remain further challenges for broad successful implementation.


Improving Robustness on Seasonality-Heavy Multivariate Time Series Anomaly Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Robust Anomaly Detection (AD) on time series data is a key component for monitoring many complex modern systems. These systems typically generate high-dimensional time series that can be highly noisy, seasonal, and inter-correlated. This paper explores some of the challenges in such data, and proposes a new approach that makes inroads towards increased robustness on seasonal and contaminated data, while providing a better root cause identification of anomalies. In particular, we propose the use of Robust Seasonal Multivariate Generative Adversarial Network (RSM-GAN) that extends recent advancements in GAN with the adoption of convolutional-LSTM layers and attention mechanisms to produce excellent performance on various settings. We conduct extensive Figure 1: RSM-GAN architecture with loss definitions experiments in which not only do this model displays more robust behavior on complex seasonality patterns, but also shows increased resistance to training data contamination. We compare it with existing often produce multi-channel time series data that automatically classical and deep-learning AD models, and show that this detecting anomalous moments can be quite challenging to any architecture is associated with the lowest false positive rate and anomaly detection (AD) system due to its intrinsic inter-correlation, improves precision by 30% and 16% in real-world and synthetic seasonality, trendiness, and irregularity traits.


A Novel GAN-based Fault Diagnosis Approach for Imbalanced Industrial Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis approach based on generative adversarial networks (GAN) for imbalanced industrial time series where normal samples are much larger than failure cases. We combine a well-designed feature extractor with GAN to help train the whole network. Aimed at obtaining data distribution and hidden pattern in both original distinguishing features and latent space, the encoder-decoder-encoder three-sub-network is employed in GAN, based on Deep Convolution Generative Adversarial Networks (DCGAN) but without Tanh activation layer and only trained on normal samples. In order to verify the validity and feasibility of our approach, we test it on rolling bearing data from Case Western Reserve University and further verify it on data collected from our laboratory. The results show that our proposed approach can achieve excellent performance in detecting faulty by outputting much larger evaluation scores.


Online Multivariate Anomaly Detection and Localization for High-dimensional Settings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper considers the real-time detection of anomalies in high-dimensional systems. The goal is to detect anomalies quickly and accurately so that the appropriate countermeasures could be taken in time, before the system possibly gets harmed. We propose a sequential and multivariate anomaly detection method that scales well to high-dimensional datasets. The proposed method follows a nonparametric, i.e., data-driven, and semi-supervised approach, i.e., trains only on nominal data. Thus, it is applicable to a wide range of applications and data types. Thanks to its multivariate nature, it can quickly and accurately detect challenging anomalies, such as changes in the correlation structure and stealth low-rate cyberattacks. Its asymptotic optimality and computational complexity are comprehensively analyzed. In conjunction with the detection method, an effective technique for localizing the anomalous data dimensions is also proposed. We further extend the proposed detection and localization methods to a supervised setup where an additional anomaly dataset is available, and combine the proposed semi-supervised and supervised algorithms to obtain an online learning algorithm under the semi-supervised framework. The practical use of proposed algorithms are demonstrated in DDoS attack mitigation, and their performances are evaluated using a real IoT-botnet dataset and simulations.