Collaborating Authors

Micro-Facial Expression Recognition Based on Deep-Rooted Learning Algorithm Artificial Intelligence

Facial expressions are important cues to observe human emotions. Facial expression recognition has attracted many researchers for years, but it is still a challenging topic since expression features vary greatly with the head poses, environments, and variations in the different persons involved. In this work, three major steps are involved to improve the performance of micro-facial expression recognition. First, an Adaptive Homomorphic Filtering is used for face detection and rotation rectification processes. Secondly, Micro-facial features were used to extract the appearance variations of a testing image-spatial analysis. The features of motion information are used for expression recognition in a sequence of facial images. An effective Micro-Facial Expression Based Deep-Rooted Learning (MFEDRL) classifier is proposed in this paper to better recognize spontaneous micro-expressions by learning parameters on the optimal features. This proposed method includes two loss functions such as cross entropy loss function and centre loss function. Then the performance of the algorithm will be evaluated using recognition rate and false measures. Simulation results show that the predictive performance of the proposed method outperforms that of the existing classifiers such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Neural Network (DNN), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) in terms of accuracy and Mean Absolute Error (MAE).

Deep Multi-Facial Patches Aggregation Network For Facial Expression Recognition Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose an approach for Facial Expressions Recognition (FER) based on a deep multi-facial patches aggregation network. Deep features are learned from facial patches using deep sub-networks and aggregated within one deep architecture for expression classification . Several problems may affect the performance of deep-learning based FER approaches, in particular, the small size of existing FER datasets which might not be sufficient to train large deep learning networks. Moreover, it is extremely time-consuming to collect and annotate a large number of facial images. To account for this, we propose two data augmentation techniques for facial expression generation to expand FER labeled training datasets. We evaluate the proposed framework on three FER datasets. Results show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-art FER deep learning approaches performance when the model is trained and tested on images from the same dataset. Moreover, the proposed data augmentation techniques improve the expression recognition rate, and thus can be a solution for training deep learning FER models using small datasets. The accuracy degrades significantly when testing for dataset bias.

SMA-STN: Segmented Movement-Attending Spatiotemporal Network forMicro-Expression Recognition Artificial Intelligence

Correctly perceiving micro-expression is difficult since micro-expression is an involuntary, repressed, and subtle facial expression, and efficiently revealing the subtle movement changes and capturing the significant segments in a micro-expression sequence is the key to micro-expression recognition (MER). To handle the crucial issue, in this paper, we firstly propose a dynamic segmented sparse imaging module (DSSI) to compute dynamic images as local-global spatiotemporal descriptors under a unique sampling protocol, which reveals the subtle movement changes visually in an efficient way. Secondly, a segmented movement-attending spatiotemporal network (SMA-STN) is proposed to further unveil imperceptible small movement changes, which utilizes a spatiotemporal movement-attending module (STMA) to capture long-distance spatial relation for facial expression and weigh temporal segments. Besides, a deviation enhancement loss (DE-Loss) is embedded in the SMA-STN to enhance the robustness of SMA-STN to subtle movement changes in feature level. Extensive experiments on three widely used benchmarks, i.e., CASME II, SAMM, and SHIC, show that the proposed SMA-STN achieves better MER performance than other state-of-the-art methods, which proves that the proposed method is effective to handle the challenging MER problem.

Improving Facial Emotion Recognition Systems Using Gradient and Laplacian Images Machine Learning

In this work, we have proposed several enhancements to improve the performance of any facial emotion recognition (FER) system. We believe that the changes in the positions of the fiducial points and the intensities capture the crucial information regarding the emotion of a face image. We propose the use of the gradient and the Laplacian of the input image together with the original input into a convolutional neural network (CNN). These modifications help the network learn additional information from the gradient and Laplacian of the images. However, the plain CNN is not able to extract this information from the raw images. We have performed a number of experiments on two well known datasets KDEF and FERplus. Our approach enhances the already high performance of state-of-the-art FER systems by 3 to 5%.

Spontaneous Facial Micro-Expression Recognition using 3D Spatiotemporal Convolutional Neural Networks Artificial Intelligence

Facial expression recognition in videos is an active area of research in computer vision. However, fake facial expressions are difficult to be recognized even by humans. On the other hand, facial micro-expressions generally represent the actual emotion of a person, as it is a spontaneous reaction expressed through human face. Despite of a few attempts made for recognizing micro-expressions, still the problem is far from being a solved problem, which is depicted by the poor rate of accuracy shown by the state-of-the-art methods. A few CNN based approaches are found in the literature to recognize micro-facial expressions from still images. Whereas, a spontaneous micro-expression video contains multiple frames that have to be processed together to encode both spatial and temporal information. This paper proposes two 3D-CNN methods: MicroExpSTCNN and MicroExpFuseNet, for spontaneous facial micro-expression recognition by exploiting the spatiotemporal information in CNN framework. The MicroExpSTCNN considers the full spatial information, whereas the MicroExpFuseNet is based on the 3D-CNN feature fusion of the eyes and mouth regions. The experiments are performed over CAS(ME)^2 and SMIC micro-expression databases. The proposed MicroExpSTCNN model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.