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Can Machines Help Us Answering Question 16 in Datasheets, and In Turn Reflecting on Inappropriate Content?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Large datasets underlying much of current machine learning raise serious issues concerning inappropriate content such as offensive, insulting, threatening, or might otherwise cause anxiety. This calls for increased dataset documentation, e.g., using datasheets. They, among other topics, encourage to reflect on the composition of the datasets. So far, this documentation, however, is done manually and therefore can be tedious and error-prone, especially for large image datasets. Here we ask the arguably "circular" question of whether a machine can help us reflect on inappropriate content, answering Question 16 in Datasheets. To this end, we propose to use the information stored in pre-trained transformer models to assist us in the documentation process. Specifically, prompt-tuning based on a dataset of socio-moral values steers CLIP to identify potentially inappropriate content, therefore reducing human labor. We then document the inappropriate images found using word clouds, based on captions generated using a vision-language model. The documentations of two popular, large-scale computer vision datasets -- ImageNet and OpenImages -- produced this way suggest that machines can indeed help dataset creators to answer Question 16 on inappropriate image content.


COLD: A Benchmark for Chinese Offensive Language Detection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Offensive language detection and prevention becomes increasing critical for maintaining a healthy social platform and the safe deployment of language models. Despite plentiful researches on toxic and offensive language problem in NLP, existing studies mainly focus on English, while few researches involve Chinese due to the limitation of resources. To facilitate Chinese offensive language detection and model evaluation, we collect COLDataset, a Chinese offensive language dataset containing 37k annotated sentences. With this high-quality dataset, we provide a strong baseline classifier, COLDetector, with 81% accuracy for offensive language detection. Furthermore, we also utilize the proposed \textsc{COLDetector} to study output offensiveness of popular Chinese language models (CDialGPT and CPM). We find that (1) CPM tends to generate more offensive output than CDialGPT, and (2) certain type of prompts, like anti-bias sentences, can trigger offensive outputs more easily.Altogether, our resources and analyses are intended to help detoxify the Chinese online communities and evaluate the safety performance of generative language models. Disclaimer: The paper contains example data that may be considered profane, vulgar, or offensive.


Learning to Prompt for Vision-Language Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Vision-language pre-training has recently emerged as a promising alternative for representation learning. It shifts from the tradition of using images and discrete labels for learning a fixed set of weights, seen as visual concepts, to aligning images and raw text for two separate encoders. Such a paradigm benefits from a broader source of supervision and allows zero-shot transfer to downstream tasks since visual concepts can be diametrically generated from natural language, known as prompt. In this paper, we identify that a major challenge of deploying such models in practice is prompt engineering. This is because designing a proper prompt, especially for context words surrounding a class name, requires domain expertise and typically takes a significant amount of time for words tuning since a slight change in wording could have a huge impact on performance. Moreover, different downstream tasks require specific designs, further hampering the efficiency of deployment. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel approach named context optimization (CoOp). The main idea is to model context in prompts using continuous representations and perform end-to-end learning from data while keeping the pre-trained parameters fixed. In this way, the design of task-relevant prompts can be fully automated. Experiments on 11 datasets show that CoOp effectively turns pre-trained vision-language models into data-efficient visual learners, requiring as few as one or two shots to beat hand-crafted prompts with a decent margin and able to gain significant improvements when using more shots (e.g., at 16 shots the average gain is around 17% with the highest reaching over 50%). CoOp also exhibits strong robustness to distribution shift.


Using CLIP to Classify Images without any Labels

#artificialintelligence

Deep image classification models are typically trained in a supervised manner over a large, annotated dataset. Although a model's performance will improve as more annotated data becomes available, large-scale datasets for supervised learning are often difficult and expensive to obtain, requiring numerous hours of effort from expert annotators. With this in mind, one may begin to wonder if cheaper sources of supervision exist. Put simply, is it possible learn high-quality image classification models from data this is already publicly available? The proposal of Contrastive Language-Image Pre-Training (CLIP) model [1] -- recently re-popularized due to its use in the DALLE-2 model--by OpenAI answered this question in a positive fashion.


Billion-Scale Pretraining with Vision Transformers for Multi-Task Visual Representations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Large-scale pretraining of visual representations has led to state-of-the-art performance on a range of benchmark computer vision tasks, yet the benefits of these techniques at extreme scale in complex production systems has been relatively unexplored. We consider the case of a popular visual discovery product, where these representations are trained with multi-task learning, from use-case specific visual understanding (e.g. skin tone classification) to general representation learning for all visual content (e.g. embeddings for retrieval). In this work, we describe how we (1) generate a dataset with over a billion images via large weakly-supervised pretraining to improve the performance of these visual representations, and (2) leverage Transformers to replace the traditional convolutional backbone, with insights into both system and performance improvements, especially at 1B+ image scale. To support this backbone model, we detail a systematic approach to deriving weakly-supervised image annotations from heterogenous text signals, demonstrating the benefits of clustering techniques to handle the long-tail distribution of image labels. Through a comprehensive study of offline and online evaluation, we show that large-scale Transformer-based pretraining provides significant benefits to industry computer vision applications. The model is deployed in a production visual shopping system, with 36% improvement in top-1 relevance and 23% improvement in click-through volume. We conduct extensive experiments to better understand the empirical relationships between Transformer-based architectures, dataset scale, and the performance of production vision systems.