Ghojogh, Benyamin, Ghodsi, Ali, Karray, Fakhri, Crowley, Mark

This is a tutorial and survey paper on kernels, kernel methods, and related fields. We start with reviewing the history of kernels in functional analysis and machine learning. Then, Mercer kernel, Hilbert and Banach spaces, Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS), Mercer's theorem and its proof, frequently used kernels, kernel construction from distance metric, important classes of kernels (including bounded, integrally positive definite, universal, stationary, and characteristic kernels), kernel centering and normalization, and eigenfunctions are explained in detail. Then, we introduce types of use of kernels in machine learning including kernel methods (such as kernel support vector machines), kernel learning by semi-definite programming, Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion, maximum mean discrepancy, kernel mean embedding, and kernel dimensionality reduction. We also cover rank and factorization of kernel matrix as well as the approximation of eigenfunctions and kernels using the Nystr{\"o}m method. This paper can be useful for various fields of science including machine learning, dimensionality reduction, functional analysis in mathematics, and mathematical physics in quantum mechanics.

Ghojogh, Benyamin, Ghodsi, Ali, Karray, Fakhri, Crowley, Mark

This is a tutorial and survey paper for nonlinear dimensionality and feature extraction methods which are based on the Laplacian of graph of data. We first introduce adjacency matrix, definition of Laplacian matrix, and the interpretation of Laplacian. Then, we cover the cuts of graph and spectral clustering which applies clustering in a subspace of data. Different optimization variants of Laplacian eigenmap and its out-of-sample extension are explained. Thereafter, we introduce the locality preserving projection and its kernel variant as linear special cases of Laplacian eigenmap. Versions of graph embedding are then explained which are generalized versions of Laplacian eigenmap and locality preserving projection. Finally, diffusion map is introduced which is a method based on Laplacian of data and random walks on the data graph.

Ghojogh, Benyamin, Ghodsi, Ali, Karray, Fakhri, Crowley, Mark

This is a tutorial and survey paper for Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) and its variants. The idea of LLE is fitting the local structure of manifold in the embedding space. In this paper, we first cover LLE, kernel LLE, inverse LLE, and feature fusion with LLE. Then, we cover out-of-sample embedding using linear reconstruction, eigenfunctions, and kernel mapping. Incremental LLE is explained for embedding streaming data. Landmark LLE methods using the Nystrom approximation and locally linear landmarks are explained for big data embedding. We introduce the methods for parameter selection of number of neighbors using residual variance, Procrustes statistics, preservation neighborhood error, and local neighborhood selection. Afterwards, Supervised LLE (SLLE), enhanced SLLE, SLLE projection, probabilistic SLLE, supervised guided LLE (using Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion), and semi-supervised LLE are explained for supervised and semi-supervised embedding. Robust LLE methods using least squares problem and penalty functions are also introduced for embedding in the presence of outliers and noise. Then, we introduce fusion of LLE with other manifold learning methods including Isomap (i.e., ISOLLE), principal component analysis, Fisher discriminant analysis, discriminant LLE, and Isotop. Finally, we explain weighted LLE in which the distances, reconstruction weights, or the embeddings are adjusted for better embedding; we cover weighted LLE for deformed distributed data, weighted LLE using probability of occurrence, SLLE by adjusting weights, modified LLE, and iterative LLE.

Ghojogh, Benyamin, Ghodsi, Ali, Karray, Fakhri, Crowley, Mark

Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) is one of the first fundamental manifold learning methods. It can be categorized into several methods, i.e., classical MDS, kernel classical MDS, metric MDS, and non-metric MDS. Sammon mapping and Isomap can be considered as special cases of metric MDS and kernel classical MDS, respectively. In this tutorial and survey paper, we review the theory of MDS, Sammon mapping, and Isomap in detail. We explain all the mentioned categories of MDS. Then, Sammon mapping, Isomap, and kernel Isomap are explained. Out-of-sample embedding for MDS and Isomap using eigenfunctions and kernel mapping are introduced. Then, Nystrom approximation and its use in landmark MDS and landmark Isomap are introduced for big data embedding. We also provide some simulations for illustrating the embedding by these methods.

Ghojogh, Benyamin, Ghodsi, Ali, Karray, Fakhri, Crowley, Mark

This is a tutorial and survey paper on metric learning. Algorithms are divided into spectral, probabilistic, and deep metric learning. We first start with the definition of distance metric, Mahalanobis distance, and generalized Mahalanobis distance. In spectral methods, we start with methods using scatters of data, including the first spectral metric learning, relevant methods to Fisher discriminant analysis, Relevant Component Analysis (RCA), Discriminant Component Analysis (DCA), and the Fisher-HSIC method. Then, large-margin metric learning, imbalanced metric learning, locally linear metric adaptation, and adversarial metric learning are covered. We also explain several kernel spectral methods for metric learning in the feature space. We also introduce geometric metric learning methods on the Riemannian manifolds. In probabilistic methods, we start with collapsing classes in both input and feature spaces and then explain the neighborhood component analysis methods, Bayesian metric learning, information theoretic methods, and empirical risk minimization in metric learning. In deep learning methods, we first introduce reconstruction autoencoders and supervised loss functions for metric learning. Then, Siamese networks and its various loss functions, triplet mining, and triplet sampling are explained. Deep discriminant analysis methods, based on Fisher discriminant analysis, are also reviewed. Finally, we introduce multi-modal deep metric learning, geometric metric learning by neural networks, and few-shot metric learning.