On Generality and Knowledge Transferability in Cross-Domain Duplicate Question Detection for Heterogeneous Community Question Answering

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Duplicate question detection is an ongoing challenge in community question answering because semantically equivalent questions can have significantly different words and structures. In addition, the identification of duplicate questions can reduce the resources required for retrieval, when the same questions are not repeated. This study compares the performance of deep neural networks and gradient tree boosting, and explores the possibility of domain adaptation with transfer learning to improve the under-performing target domains for the text-pair duplicates classification task, using three heterogeneous datasets: general-purpose Quora, technical Ask Ubuntu, and academic English Stack Exchange. Ultimately, our study exposes the alternative hypothesis that the meaning of a "duplicate" is not inherently general-purpose, but rather is dependent on the domain of learning, hence reducing the chance of transfer learning through adapting to the domain.

Detecting Misflagged Duplicate Questions in Community Question-Answering Archives

AAAI Conferences

In this paper we introduce the task of misflagged duplicate question detection for question pairs in community question-answer (cQA) archives and compare it to the more standard task of detecting valid duplicate questions. A misflagged duplicate is a question that has been erroneously hand-flagged by the community as a duplicate of an archived one, where the two questions are not actually the same. We find that form is flagged duplicate detection, meta data features that capture user authority, question quality, and relational data between questions, outperform pure text-based methods, while for regular duplicate detection a combination of meta data features and semantic features gives the best results. We show that misflagged duplicate questions are even more challenging to model than regular duplicate question detection, but that good results can still be obtained.

An Unsupervised Model With Attention Autoencoders for Question Retrieval

AAAI Conferences

Question retrieval is a crucial subtask for community question answering. Previous research focus on supervised models which depend heavily on training data and manual feature engineering. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised framework, namely reduced attentive matching network (RAMN), to compute semantic matching between two questions. Our RAMN integrates together the deep semantic representations, the shallow lexical mismatching information and the initial rank produced by an external search engine. For the first time, we propose attention autoencoders to generate semantic representations of questions. In addition, we employ lexical mismatching to capture surface matching between two questions, which is derived from the importance of each word in a question. We conduct experiments on the open CQA datasets of SemEval-2016 and SemEval-2017. The experimental results show that our unsupervised model obtains comparable performance with the state-of-the-art supervised methods in SemEval-2016 Task 3, and outperforms the best system in SemEval-2017 Task 3 by a wide margin.

Predicting the Programming Language of Questions and Snippets of StackOverflow Using Natural Language Processing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Stack Overflow is the most popular Q&A website among software developers. As a platform for knowledge sharing and acquisition, the questions posted in Stack Overflow usually contain a code snippet. Stack Overflow relies on users to properly tag the programming language of a question and it simply assumes that the programming language of the snippets inside a question is the same as the tag of the question itself. In this paper, we propose a classifier to predict the programming language of questions posted in Stack Overflow using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML). The classifier achieves an accuracy of 91.1% in predicting the 24 most popular programming languages by combining features from the title, body and the code snippets of the question. We also propose a classifier that only uses the title and body of the question and has an accuracy of 81.1%. Finally, we propose a classifier of code snippets only that achieves an accuracy of 77.7%. These results show that deploying Machine Learning techniques on the combination of text and the code snippets of a question provides the best performance. These results demonstrate also that it is possible to identify the programming language of a snippet of few lines of source code. We visualize the feature space of two programming languages Java and SQL in order to identify some special properties of information inside the questions in Stack Overflow corresponding to these languages.

A Language-Agnostic Model for Semantic Source Code Labeling

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Code search and comprehension have become more difficult in recent years due to the rapid expansion of available source code. Current tools lack a way to label arbitrary code at scale while maintaining up-to-date representations of new programming languages, libraries, and functionalities. Comprehensive labeling of source code enables users to search for documents of interest and obtain a high-level understanding of their contents. We use Stack Overflow code snippets and their tags to train a language-agnostic, deep convolutional neural network to automatically predict semantic labels for source code documents. On Stack Overflow code snippets, we demonstrate a mean area under ROC of 0.957 over a long-tailed list of 4,508 tags. We also manually validate the model outputs on a diverse set of unlabeled source code documents retrieved from Github, and we obtain a top-1 accuracy of 86.6%. This strongly indicates that the model successfully transfers its knowledge from Stack Overflow snippets to arbitrary source code documents.