This paper studies an intelligent ultimate technique for health-monitoring and prognostic of common rotary machine components, particularly bearings. During a run-to-failure experiment, rich unsupervised features from vibration sensory data are extracted by a trained sparse auto-encoder. Then, the correlation of the extracted attributes of the initial samples (presumably healthy at the beginning of the test) with the succeeding samples is calculated and passed through a moving-average filter. The normalized output is named auto-encoder correlation-based (AEC) rate which stands for an informative attribute of the system depicting its health status and precisely identifying the degradation starting point. We show that AEC technique well-generalizes in several run-to-failure tests. AEC collects rich unsupervised features form the vibration data fully autonomous. We demonstrate the superiority of the AEC over many other state-of-the-art approaches for the health monitoring and prognostic of machine bearings.
Condition monitoring is one of the routine tasks in all major process industries. The mechanical parts such as a motor, gear, bearings are the major components of a process industry and any fault in them may cause a total shutdown of the whole process, which may result in serious losses. Therefore, it is very crucial to predict any approaching defects before its occurrence. Several methods exist for this purpose and many research are being carried out for better and efficient models. However, most of them are based on the processing of raw sensor signals, which is tedious and expensive. Recently, there has been an increase in the feature based condition monitoring, where only the useful features are extracted from the raw signals and interpreted for the prediction of the fault. Most of these are handcrafted features, where these are manually obtained based on the nature of the raw data. This of course requires the prior knowledge of the nature of data and related processes. This limits the feature extraction process. However, recent development in the autoencoder based feature extraction method provides an alternative to the traditional handcrafted approaches; however, they have mostly been confined in the area of image and audio processing. In this work, we have developed an automated feature extraction method for on-line condition monitoring based on the stack of the traditional autoencoder and an on-line sequential extreme learning machine(OSELM) network. The performance of this method is comparable to that of the traditional feature extraction approaches. The method can achieve 100% detection accuracy for determining the bearing health states of NASA bearing dataset. The simple design of this method is promising for the easy hardware implementation of Internet of Things(IoT) based prognostics solutions.
Factor analysis or sometimes referred to as variable analysis has been extensively used in classification problems for identifying specific factors that are significant to particular classes. This type of analysis has been widely used in application such as customer segmentation, medical research, network traffic, image, and video classification. Today, factor analysis is prominently being used in fault diagnosis of machines to identify the significant factors and to study the root cause of a specific machine fault. The advantage of performing factor analysis in machine maintenance is to perform prescriptive analysis (helps answer what actions to take?) and preemptive analysis (helps answer how to eliminate the failure mode?). In this paper, a real case of an industrial rotating machine was considered where vibration and ambient temperature data was collected for monitoring the health of the machine. Gaussian mixture model-based clustering was used to cluster the data into significant groups, and spectrum analysis was used to diagnose each cluster to a specific state of the machine. The significant features that attribute to a particular mode of the machine were identified by using the random forest classification model. The significant features for specific modes of the machine were used to conclude that the clusters generated are distinct and have a unique set of significant features.
Recent trends focusing on Industry 4.0 concept and smart manufacturing arise a data-driven fault diagnosis as key topic in condition-based maintenance. Fault diagnosis is considered as an essential task in rotary machinery since possibility of an early detection and diagnosis of the faulty condition can save both time and money. Traditional data-driven techniques of fault diagnosis require signal processing for feature extraction, as they are unable to work with raw signal data, consequently leading to need for expert knowledge and human work. The emergence of deep learning architectures in condition-based maintenance promises to ensure high performance fault diagnosis while lowering necessity for expert knowledge and human work. This paper presents developed technique for deep learning-based data-driven fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. The proposed technique input raw three axis accelerometer signal as high-definition image into deep learning layers which automatically extract signal features, enabling high classification accuracy.
In this survey paper, we systematically summarize the current literature on studies that apply machine learning (ML) and data mining techniques to bearing fault diagnostics. Conventional ML methods, including artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machines (SVM), etc., have been successfully applied to detecting and categorizing bearing faults since the last decade, while the application of deep learning (DL) methods has sparked great interest in both the industry and academia in the last five years. In this paper, we will first review the conventional ML methods, before taking a deep dive into the latest developments in DL algorithms for bearing fault applications. Specifically, the superiority of the DL based methods over the conventional ML methods are analyzed in terms of metrics directly related to fault feature extraction and classifier performances; the new functionalities offered by DL techniques that cannot be accomplished before are also summarized. In addition, to obtain a more intuitive insight, a comparative study is performed on the classifier performance and accuracy for a number of papers utilizing the open source Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) bearing data set. Finally, based on the nature of the time-series 1-D data obtained from sensors monitoring the bearing conditions, recommendations and suggestions are provided to applying DL algorithms on bearing fault diagnostics based on specific applications, as well as future research directions to further improve its performance.