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TextNAS: A Neural Architecture Search Space tailored for Text Representation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning text representation is crucial for text classification and other language related tasks. There are a diverse set of text representation networks in the literature, and how to find the optimal one is a non-trivial problem. Recently, the emerging Neural Architecture Search (NAS) techniques have demonstrated good potential to solve the problem. Nevertheless, most of the existing works of NAS focus on the search algorithms and pay little attention to the search space. In this paper, we argue that the search space is also an important human prior to the success of NAS in different applications. Thus, we propose a novel search space tailored for text representation. Through automatic search, the discovered network architecture outperforms state-of-the-art models on various public datasets on text classification and natural language inference tasks. Furthermore, some of the design principles found in the automatic network agree well with human intuition.


Neural Architecture Search

#artificialintelligence

Neural Architecture Search (NAS) automates network architecture engineering. It aims to learn a network topology that can achieve best performance on a certain task. Although most popular and successful model architectures are designed by human experts, it doesn't mean we have explored the entire network architecture space and settled down with the best option. We would have a better chance to find the optimal solution if we adopt a systematic and automatic way of learning high-performance model architectures. Automatically learning and evolving network topologies is not a new idea (Stanley & Miikkulainen, 2002). In recent years, the pioneering work by Zoph & Le 2017 and Baker et al. 2017 has attracted a lot of attention into the field of Neural Architecture Search (NAS), leading to many interesting ideas for better, faster and more cost-efficient NAS methods. As I started looking into NAS, I found this nice survey very helpful by Elsken, et al 2019. They characterize NAS as a system with three major components, which is clean & concise, and also commonly adopted in other NAS papers. The NAS search space defines a set of basic network operations and how operations can be connected to construct valid network architectures.


Path-Level Network Transformation for Efficient Architecture Search

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce a new function-preserving transformation for efficient neural architecture search. This network transformation allows reusing previously trained networks and existing successful architectures that improves sample efficiency. We aim to address the limitation of current network transformation operations that can only perform layer-level architecture modifications, such as adding (pruning) filters or inserting (removing) a layer, which fails to change the topology of connection paths. Our proposed path-level transformation operations enable the meta-controller to modify the path topology of the given network while keeping the merits of reusing weights, and thus allow efficiently designing effective structures with complex path topologies like Inception models. We further propose a bidirectional tree-structured reinforcement learning meta-controller to explore a simple yet highly expressive tree-structured architecture space that can be viewed as a generalization of multi-branch architectures. We experimented on the image classification datasets with limited computational resources (about 200 GPU-hours), where we observed improved parameter efficiency and better test results (97.70% test accuracy on CIFAR-10 with 14.3M parameters and 74.6% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet in the mobile setting), demonstrating the effectiveness and transferability of our designed architectures.


GraphNAS: Graph Neural Architecture Search with Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been popularly used for analyzing non-Euclidean data such as social network data and biological data. Despite their success, the design of graph neural networks requires a lot of manual work and domain knowledge. In this paper, we propose a Graph Neural Architecture Search method (GraphNAS for short) that enables automatic search of the best graph neural architecture based on reinforcement learning. Specifically, GraphNAS first uses a recurrent network to generate variable-length strings that describe the architectures of graph neural networks, and then trains the recurrent network with reinforcement learning to maximize the expected accuracy of the generated architectures on a validation data set. Extensive experimental results on node classification tasks in both transductive and inductive learning settings demonstrate that GraphNAS can achieve consistently better performance on the Cora, Citeseer, Pubmed citation network, and protein-protein interaction network. On node classification tasks, GraphNAS can design a novel network architecture that rivals the best human-invented architecture in terms of test set accuracy.


A Study of the Learning Progress in Neural Architecture Search Techniques

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In neural architecture search, the structure of the neural network to best model a given dataset is determined by an automated search process. Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS), proposed by Pham et al. (2018), has recently received considerable attention due to its ability to find excellent architectures within a comparably short search time. In this work, which is motivated by the quest to further improve the learning speed of architecture search, we evaluate the learning progress of the controller which generates the architectures in ENAS. We measure the progress by comparing the architectures generated by it at different controller training epochs, where architectures are evaluated after having re-trained them from scratch. As a surprising result, we find that the learning curves are completely flat, i.e., there is no observable progress of the controller in terms of the performance of its generated architectures. This observation is consistent across the CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets and two different search spaces. We conclude that the high quality of the models generated by ENAS is a result of the search space design rather than the controller training, and our results indicate that one-shot architecture design is an efficient alternative to architecture search by ENAS.