Path-Level Network Transformation for Efficient Architecture Search

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce a new function-preserving transformation for efficient neural architecture search. This network transformation allows reusing previously trained networks and existing successful architectures that improves sample efficiency. We aim to address the limitation of current network transformation operations that can only perform layer-level architecture modifications, such as adding (pruning) filters or inserting (removing) a layer, which fails to change the topology of connection paths. Our proposed path-level transformation operations enable the meta-controller to modify the path topology of the given network while keeping the merits of reusing weights, and thus allow efficiently designing effective structures with complex path topologies like Inception models. We further propose a bidirectional tree-structured reinforcement learning meta-controller to explore a simple yet highly expressive tree-structured architecture space that can be viewed as a generalization of multi-branch architectures. We experimented on the image classification datasets with limited computational resources (about 200 GPU-hours), where we observed improved parameter efficiency and better test results (97.70% test accuracy on CIFAR-10 with 14.3M parameters and 74.6% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet in the mobile setting), demonstrating the effectiveness and transferability of our designed architectures.


GraphNAS: Graph Neural Architecture Search with Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been popularly used for analyzing non-Euclidean data such as social network data and biological data. Despite their success, the design of graph neural networks requires a lot of manual work and domain knowledge. In this paper, we propose a Graph Neural Architecture Search method (GraphNAS for short) that enables automatic search of the best graph neural architecture based on reinforcement learning. Specifically, GraphNAS first uses a recurrent network to generate variable-length strings that describe the architectures of graph neural networks, and then trains the recurrent network with reinforcement learning to maximize the expected accuracy of the generated architectures on a validation data set. Extensive experimental results on node classification tasks in both transductive and inductive learning settings demonstrate that GraphNAS can achieve consistently better performance on the Cora, Citeseer, Pubmed citation network, and protein-protein interaction network. On node classification tasks, GraphNAS can design a novel network architecture that rivals the best human-invented architecture in terms of test set accuracy.


A Study of the Learning Progress in Neural Architecture Search Techniques

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In neural architecture search, the structure of the neural network to best model a given dataset is determined by an automated search process. Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS), proposed by Pham et al. (2018), has recently received considerable attention due to its ability to find excellent architectures within a comparably short search time. In this work, which is motivated by the quest to further improve the learning speed of architecture search, we evaluate the learning progress of the controller which generates the architectures in ENAS. We measure the progress by comparing the architectures generated by it at different controller training epochs, where architectures are evaluated after having re-trained them from scratch. As a surprising result, we find that the learning curves are completely flat, i.e., there is no observable progress of the controller in terms of the performance of its generated architectures. This observation is consistent across the CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets and two different search spaces. We conclude that the high quality of the models generated by ENAS is a result of the search space design rather than the controller training, and our results indicate that one-shot architecture design is an efficient alternative to architecture search by ENAS.


Efficient Neural Architecture Search via Parameter Sharing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS), a fast and inexpensive approach for automatic model design. In ENAS, a controller learns to discover neural network architectures by searching for an optimal subgraph within a large computational graph. The controller is trained with policy gradient to select a subgraph that maximizes the expected reward on the validation set. Meanwhile the model corresponding to the selected subgraph is trained to minimize a canonical cross entropy loss. Thanks to parameter sharing between child models, ENAS is fast: it delivers strong empirical performances using much fewer GPU-hours than all existing automatic model design approaches, and notably, 1000x less expensive than standard Neural Architecture Search. On the Penn Treebank dataset, ENAS discovers a novel architecture that achieves a test perplexity of 55.8, establishing a new state-of-the-art among all methods without post-training processing. On the CIFAR-10 dataset, ENAS designs novel architectures that achieve a test error of 2.89%, which is on par with NASNet (Zoph et al., 2018), whose test error is 2.65%.


Learning Transferable Architectures for Scalable Image Recognition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Developing neural network image classification models often requires significant architecture engineering. In this paper, we attempt to automate this engineering process by learning the model architectures directly on the dataset of interest. As this approach is expensive when the dataset is large, we propose to search for an architectural building block on a small dataset and then transfer the block to a larger dataset. Our key contribution is the design of a new search space which enables transferability. In our experiments, we search for the best convolutional layer (or "cell") on the CIFAR-10 dataset and then apply this cell to the ImageNet dataset by stacking together more copies of this cell, each with their own parameters. Although the cell is not searched for directly on ImageNet, an architecture constructed from the best cell achieves, among the published works, state-of-the-art accuracy of 82.7% top-1 and 96.2% top-5 on ImageNet. Our model is 1.2% better in top-1 accuracy than the best human-invented architectures while having 9 billion fewer FLOPS -- a reduction of 28% in computational demand from the previous state-of-the-art model. When evaluated at different levels of computational cost, accuracies of our models exceed those of the state-of-the-art human-designed models. For instance, a smaller network constructed from the best cell also achieves 74% top-1 accuracy, which is 3.1% better than equivalently-sized, state-of-the-art models for mobile platforms. On CIFAR-10, an architecture constructed from the best cell achieves 2.4% error rate, which is also state-of-the-art. Finally, the image features learned from image classification can also be transferred to other computer vision problems. On the task of object detection, the learned features used with the Faster-RCNN framework surpass state-of-the-art by 4.0% achieving 43.1% mAP on the COCO dataset.