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Generative Adversarial Learning for Spectrum Sensing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A novel approach of training data augmentation and domain adaptation is presented to support machine learning applications for cognitive radio. Machine learning provides effective tools to automate cognitive radio functionalities by reliably extracting and learning intrinsic spectrum dynamics. However, there are two important challenges to overcome, in order to fully utilize the machine learning benefits with cognitive radios. First, machine learning requires significant amount of truthed data to capture complex channel and emitter characteristics, and train the underlying algorithm (e.g., a classifier). Second, the training data that has been identified for one spectrum environment cannot be used for another one (e.g., after channel and emitter conditions change). To address these challenges, a generative adversarial network (GAN) with deep learning structures is used to 1)~generate additional synthetic training data to improve classifier accuracy, and 2) adapt training data to spectrum dynamics. This approach is applied to spectrum sensing by assuming only limited training data without knowledge of spectrum statistics. Machine learning classifiers are trained with limited, augmented and adapted training data to detect signals. Results show that training data augmentation increases the classifier accuracy significantly and this increase is sustained with domain adaptation as spectrum conditions change.


Improved Reinforcement Learning through Imitation Learning Pretraining Towards Image-based Autonomous Driving

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a training pipeline for the autonomous driving task given the current camera image and vehicle speed as the input to produce the throttle, brake, and steering control output. The simulator Airsim's convenient weather and lighting API provides a sufficient diversity during training which can be very helpful to increase the trained policy's robustness. In order to not limit the possible policy's performance, we use a continuous and deterministic control policy setting. We utilize ResNet-34 as our actor and critic networks with some slight changes in the fully connected layers. Considering human's mastery of this task and the high-complexity nature of this task, we first use imitation learning to mimic the given human policy and leverage the trained policy and its weights to the reinforcement learning phase for which we use DDPG. This combination shows a considerable performance boost comparing to both pure imitation learning and pure DDPG for the autonomous driving task.


Towards Robust and Reproducible Active Learning Using Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Active learning (AL) is a promising ML paradigm that has the potential to parse through large unlabeled data and help reduce annotation cost in domains where labeling entire data can be prohibitive. Recently proposed neural network based AL methods use different heuristics to accomplish this goal. In this study, we show that recent AL methods offer a gain over random baseline under a brittle combination of experimental conditions. We demonstrate that such marginal gains vanish when experimental factors are changed, leading to reproducibility issues and suggesting that AL methods lack robustness. We also observe that with a properly tuned model, which employs recently proposed regularization techniques, the performance significantly improves for all AL methods including the random sampling baseline, and performance differences among the AL methods become negligible. Based on these observations, we suggest a set of experiments that are critical to assess the true effectiveness of an AL method. To facilitate these experiments we also present an open source toolkit. We believe our findings and recommendations will help advance reproducible research in robust AL using neural networks.


You May Not Need Order in Time Series Forecasting

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Time series forecasting with limited data is a challenging yet critical task. While transformers have achieved outstanding performances in time series forecasting, they often require many training samples due to the large number of trainable parameters. In this paper, we propose a training technique for transformers that prepares the training windows through random sampling. As input time steps need not be consecutive, the number of distinct samples increases from linearly to combinatorially many. By breaking the temporal order, this technique also helps transformers to capture dependencies among time steps in finer granularity. We achieve competitive results compared to the state-of-the-art on real-world datasets.


Real-valued (Medical) Time Series Generation with Recurrent Conditional GANs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success as a framework for training models to produce realistic-looking data. In this work, we propose a Recurrent GAN (RGAN) and Recurrent Conditional GAN (RCGAN) to produce realistic real-valued multi-dimensional time series, with an emphasis on their application to medical data. RGANs make use of recurrent neural networks in the generator and the discriminator. In the case of RCGANs, both of these RNNs are conditioned on auxiliary information. We demonstrate our models in a set of toy datasets, where we show visually and quantitatively (using sample likelihood and maximum mean discrepancy) that they can successfully generate realistic time-series. We also describe novel evaluation methods for GANs, where we generate a synthetic labelled training dataset, and evaluate on a real test set the performance of a model trained on the synthetic data, and vice-versa. We illustrate with these metrics that RCGANs can generate time-series data useful for supervised training, with only minor degradation in performance on real test data. This is demonstrated on digit classification from 'serialised' MNIST and by training an early warning system on a medical dataset of 17,000 patients from an intensive care unit. We further discuss and analyse the privacy concerns that may arise when using RCGANs to generate realistic synthetic medical time series data.