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Investigating Active Learning for Concept Prerequisite Learning

AAAI Conferences

Concept prerequisite learning focuses on machine learning methods for measuring the prerequisite relation among concepts. With the importance of prerequisites for education, it has recently become a promising research direction. A major obstacle to extracting prerequisites at scale is the lack of large-scale labels which will enable effective data-driven solutions. We investigate the applicability of active learning to concept prerequisite learning.We propose a novel set of features tailored for prerequisite classification and compare the effectiveness of four widely used query strategies. Experimental results for domains including data mining, geometry, physics, and precalculus show that active learning can be used to reduce the amount of training data required. Given the proposed features, the query-by-committee strategy outperforms other compared query strategies.


Recovering Concept Prerequisite Relations from University Course Dependencies

AAAI Conferences

Prerequisite relations among concepts play an important role in many educational applications such as intelligent tutoring system and curriculum planning. With the increasing amount of educational data available, automatic discovery of concept prerequisite relations has become both an emerging research opportunity and an open challenge. Here, we investigate how to recover concept prerequisite relations from course dependencies and propose an optimization based framework to address the problem. We create the first real dataset for empirically studying this problem, which consists of the listings of computer science courses from 11 U.S. universities and their concept pairs with prerequisite labels. Experiment results on a synthetic dataset and the real course dataset both show that our method outperforms existing baselines.


What Should I Learn First: Introducing LectureBank for NLP Education and Prerequisite Chain Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent years have witnessed the rising popularity of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and related fields such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML). Many online courses and resources are available even for those without a strong background in the field. Often the student is curious about a specific topic but does not quite know where to begin studying. To answer the question of "what should one learn first," we apply an embedding-based method to learn prerequisite relations for course concepts in the domain of NLP. We introduce LectureBank, a dataset containing 1,352 English lecture files collected from university courses which are each classified according to an existing taxonomy as well as 208 manually-labeled prerequisite relation topics, which is publicly available. The dataset will be useful for educational purposes such as lecture preparation and organization as well as applications such as reading list generation. Additionally, we experiment with neural graph-based networks and non-neural classifiers to learn these prerequisite relations from our dataset.


Presidential Prerequisites?

Slate

In the Slate Plus bonus segment of Thursday's edition of the Political Gabfest, hosts Emily Bazelon, John Dickerson, and David Plotz brainstorm a list of presidential prerequisites--everything presidential candidates should be required to see and do before they run. Or does too much empathy hold a president back?


Learning Concept Graphs from Online Educational Data

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

This paper addresses an open challenge in educational data mining, i.e., the problem of automatically mapping online courses from different providers (universities, MOOCs, etc.) onto a universal space of concepts, and predicting latent prerequisite dependencies (directed links) among both concepts and courses. We propose a novel approach for inference within and across course-level and concept-level directed graphs. In the training phase, our system projects partially observed course-level prerequisite links onto directed concept-level links; in the testing phase, the induced concept-level links are used to infer the unknown course-level prerequisite links. Whereas courses may be specific to one institution, concepts are shared across different providers. The bi-directional mappings enable our system to perform interlingua-style transfer learning, e.g.