In econometrics and finance, the vector error correction model (VECM) is an important time series model for cointegration analysis, which is used to estimate the long-run equilibrium variable relationships. The traditional analysis and estimation methodologies assume the underlying Gaussian distribution but, in practice, heavy-tailed data and outliers can lead to the inapplicability of these methods. In this paper, we propose a robust model estimation method based on the Cauchy distribution to tackle this issue. In addition, sparse cointegration relations are considered to realize feature selection and dimension reduction. An efficient algorithm based on the majorization-minimization (MM) method is applied to solve the proposed nonconvex problem. The performance of this algorithm is shown through numerical simulations.
Researchers are often faced with the challenge of developing statistical models with incomplete data. Exacerbating this situation is the possibility that either the researcher's complete-data model or the model of the missing-data mechanism is misspecified. In this article, we create a formal theoretical framework for developing statistical models and detecting model misspecification in the presence of incomplete data where maximum likelihood estimates are obtained by maximizing the observable-data likelihood function when the missing-data mechanism is assumed ignorable. First, we provide sufficient regularity conditions on the researcher's complete-data model to characterize the asymptotic behavior of maximum likelihood estimates in the simultaneous presence of both missing data and model misspecification. These results are then used to derive robust hypothesis testing methods for possibly misspecified models in the presence of Missing at Random (MAR) or Missing Not at Random (MNAR) missing data.
Discrete Fourier transforms and other related Fourier methods have been practically implementable due to the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However there are many situations where doing fast Fourier transforms without complete data would be desirable. In this paper itis recognised that formulating the FFT algorithm as a belief network allows suitable priors to be set for the Fourier coefficients. Furthermore efficient generalised belief propagation methods between clustersof four nodes enable the Fourier coefficients to be inferred and the missing data to be estimated in near to O(n log n) time, where n is the total of the given and missing data points. This method is compared with a number of common approaches such as setting missing data to zero or to interpolation. It is tested on generated data and for a Fourier analysis of a damaged audio signal.
We propose BMLE, a new family of bandit algorithms, that are formulated in a general way based on the Biased Maximum Likelihood Estimation method originally appearing in the adaptive control literature. We design the cost-bias term to tackle the exploration and exploitation tradeoff for stochastic bandit problems. We provide an explicit closed form expression for the index of an arm for Bernoulli bandits, which is trivial to compute. We also provide a general recipe for extending the BMLE algorithm to other families of reward distributions. We prove that for Bernoulli bandits, the BMLE algorithm achieves a logarithmic finite-time regret bound and hence attains order-optimality. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithms achieve regret performance comparable to the best of several state-of-the-art baseline methods, while having a significant computational advantage in comparison to other best performing methods. The generality of the proposed approach makes it possible to address more complex models, including general adaptive control of Markovian systems.