Zhu, Jia-Jie, Muandet, Krikamol, Diehl, Moritz, Schölkopf, Bernhard

This work presents the concept of kernel mean embedding and kernel probabilistic programming in the context of stochastic systems. We propose formulations to represent, compare, and propagate uncertainties for fairly general stochastic dynamics in a distribution-free manner. The new tools enjoy sound theory rooted in functional analysis and wide applicability as demonstrated in distinct numerical examples. The implication of this new concept is a new mode of thinking about the statistical nature of uncertainty in dynamical systems.1. INTRODUCTION Classic stochastic control methods such as LQG hinge on the mathematical fact that the family of Gaussian distributions is closed under an affine transformation.

Wilkinson, William J., Andersen, Michael Riis, Reiss, Joshua D., Stowell, Dan, Solin, Arno

In audio signal processing, probabilistic time-frequency models have many benefits over their non-probabilistic counterparts. They adapt to the incoming signal, quantify uncertainty, and measure correlation between the signal's amplitude and phase information, making time domain resynthesis straightforward. However, these models are still not widely used since they come at a high computational cost, and because they are formulated in such a way that it can be difficult to interpret all the modelling assumptions. By showing their equivalence to Spectral Mixture Gaussian processes, we illuminate the underlying model assumptions and provide a general framework for constructing more complex models that better approximate real-world signals. Our interpretation makes it intuitive to inspect, compare, and alter the models since all prior knowledge is encoded in the Gaussian process kernel functions. We utilise a state space representation to perform efficient inference via Kalman smoothing, and we demonstrate how our interpretation allows for efficient parameter learning in the frequency domain.

Gu, Quanquan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) | Li, Zhenhui (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) | Han, Jiawei (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

Multi-task learning has received increasing attention in the past decade. Many supervised multi-task learning methods have been proposed, while unsupervised multi-task learning is still a rarely studied problem. In this paper, we propose to learn a kernel for multi-task clustering. Our goal is to learn a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space, in which the geometric structure of the data in each task is preserved, while the data distributions of any two tasks are as close as possible. This is formulated as a unified kernel learning framework, under which we study two types of kernel learning: nonparametric kernel learning and spectral kernel design. Both types of kernel learning can be solved by linear programming. Experiments on several cross-domain text data sets demonstrate that kernel k-means on the learned kernel can achieve better clustering results than traditional single-task clustering methods. It also outperforms the newly proposed multi-task clustering method.

Nishiyama, Yu, Kanagawa, Motonobu, Gretton, Arthur, Fukumizu, Kenji

In this study, we enrich the framework of nonparametric kernel Bayesian inference via the flexible incorporation of certain probabilistic models, such as additive Gaussian noise models. Nonparametric inference expressed in terms of kernel means, which is called kernel Bayesian inference, has been studied using basic rules such as the kernel sum rule (KSR), kernel chain rule, kernel product rule, and kernel Bayes' rule (KBR). However, the current framework used for kernel Bayesian inference deals only with nonparametric inference and it cannot allow inference when combined with probabilistic models. In this study, we introduce a novel KSR, called model-based KSR (Mb-KSR), which exploits the knowledge obtained from some probabilistic models of conditional distributions. The incorporation of Mb-KSR into nonparametric kernel Bayesian inference facilitates more flexible kernel Bayesian inference than nonparametric inference. We focus on combinations of Mb-KSR, Non-KSR, and KBR, and we propose a filtering algorithm for state space models, which combines nonparametric learning of the observation process using kernel means and additive Gaussian noise models of the transition dynamics. The idea of the Mb-KSR for additive Gaussian noise models can be extended to more general noise model cases, including a conjugate pair with a positive-definite kernel and a probabilistic model.

Nickisch, Hannes, Seeger, Matthias

We present a probabilistic viewpoint to multiple kernel learning unifying well-known regularised risk approaches and recent advances in approximate Bayesian inference relaxations. The framework proposes a general objective function suitable for regression, robust regression and classification that is lower bound of the marginal likelihood and contains many regularised risk approaches as special cases. Furthermore, we derive an efficient and provably convergent optimisation algorithm.