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### Connectedness of graphs and its application to connected matroids through covering-based rough sets

Graph theoretical ideas are highly utilized by computer science fields especially data mining. In this field, a data structure can be designed in the form of tree. Covering is a widely used form of data representation in data mining and covering-based rough sets provide a systematic approach to this type of representation. In this paper, we study the connectedness of graphs through covering-based rough sets and apply it to connected matroids. First, we present an approach to inducing a covering by a graph, and then study the connectedness of the graph from the viewpoint of the covering approximation operators. Second, we construct a graph from a matroid, and find the matroid and the graph have the same connectedness, which makes us to use covering-based rough sets to study connected matroids. In summary, this paper provides a new approach to studying graph theory and matroid theory.

### Characteristic of partition-circuit matroid through approximation number

Rough set theory is a useful tool to deal with uncertain, granular and incomplete knowledge in information systems. And it is based on equivalence relations or partitions. Matroid theory is a structure that generalizes linear independence in vector spaces, and has a variety of applications in many fields. In this paper, we propose a new type of matroids, namely, partition-circuit matroids, which are induced by partitions. Firstly, a partition satisfies circuit axioms in matroid theory, then it can induce a matroid which is called a partition-circuit matroid. A partition and an equivalence relation on the same universe are one-to-one corresponding, then some characteristics of partition-circuit matroids are studied through rough sets. Secondly, similar to the upper approximation number which is proposed by Wang and Zhu, we define the lower approximation number. Some characteristics of partition-circuit matroids and the dual matroids of them are investigated through the lower approximation number and the upper approximation number.

### Covering rough sets based on neighborhoods: An approach without using neighborhoods

Rough set theory, a mathematical tool to deal with inexact or uncertain knowledge in information systems, has originally described the indiscernibility of elements by equivalence relations. Covering rough sets are a natural extension of classical rough sets by relaxing the partitions arising from equivalence relations to coverings. Recently, some topological concepts such as neighborhood have been applied to covering rough sets. In this paper, we further investigate the covering rough sets based on neighborhoods by approximation operations. We show that the upper approximation based on neighborhoods can be defined equivalently without using neighborhoods. To analyze the coverings themselves, we introduce unary and composition operations on coverings. A notion of homomorphismis provided to relate two covering approximation spaces. We also examine the properties of approximations preserved by the operations and homomorphisms, respectively.

### Condition for neighborhoods induced by a covering to be equal to the covering itself

It is a meaningful issue that under what condition neighborhoods induced by a covering are equal to the covering itself. A necessary and sufficient condition for this issue has been provided by some scholars. In this paper, through a counter-example, we firstly point out the necessary and sufficient condition is false. Second, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for this issue. Third, we concentrate on the inverse issue of computing neighborhoods by a covering, namely giving an arbitrary covering, whether or not there exists another covering such that the neighborhoods induced by it is just the former covering. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for this issue as well. In a word, through the study on the two fundamental issues induced by neighborhoods, we have gained a deeper understanding of the relationship between neighborhoods and the covering which induce the neighborhoods.

### Some characteristics of matroids through rough sets

At present, practical application and theoretical discussion of rough sets are two hot problems in computer science. The core concepts of rough set theory are upper and lower approximation operators based on equivalence relations. Matroid, as a branch of mathematics, is a structure that generalizes linear independence in vector spaces. Further, matroid theory borrows extensively from the terminology of linear algebra and graph theory. We can combine rough set theory with matroid theory through using rough sets to study some characteristics of matroids. In this paper, we apply rough sets to matroids through defining a family of sets which are constructed from the upper approximation operator with respect to an equivalence relation. First, we prove the family of sets satisfies the support set axioms of matroids, and then we obtain a matroid. We say the matroids induced by the equivalence relation and a type of matroid, namely support matroid, is induced. Second, through rough sets, some characteristics of matroids such as independent sets, support sets, bases, hyperplanes and closed sets are investigated.