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Combining Restricted Boltzmann Machines with Neural Networks for Latent Truth Discovery

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Latent truth discovery, LTD for short, refers to the problem of aggregating ltiple claims from various sources in order to estimate the plausibility of atements about entities. In the absence of a ground truth, this problem is highly challenging, when some sources provide conflicting claims and others no claims at all. In this work we provide an unsupervised stochastic inference procedure on top of a model that combines restricted Boltzmann machines with feed-forward neural networks to accurately infer the reliability of sources as well as the plausibility of statements about entities. In comparison to prior work our approach stands out (1) by allowing the incorporation of arbitrary features about sources and claims, (2) by generalizing from reliability per source towards a reliability function, and thus (3) enabling the estimation of source reliability even for sources that have provided no or very few claims, (4) by building on efficient and scalable stochastic inference algorithms, and (5) by outperforming the state-of-the-art by a considerable margin.


OpinionRank: Extracting Ground Truth Labels from Unreliable Expert Opinions with Graph-Based Spectral Ranking

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As larger and more comprehensive datasets become standard in contemporary machine learning, it becomes increasingly more difficult to obtain reliable, trustworthy label information with which to train sophisticated models. To address this problem, crowdsourcing has emerged as a popular, inexpensive, and efficient data mining solution for performing distributed label collection. However, crowdsourced annotations are inherently untrustworthy, as the labels are provided by anonymous volunteers who may have varying, unreliable expertise. Worse yet, some participants on commonly used platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk may be adversarial, and provide intentionally incorrect label information without the end user's knowledge. We discuss three conventional models of the label generation process, describing their parameterizations and the model-based approaches used to solve them. We then propose OpinionRank, a model-free, interpretable, graph-based spectral algorithm for integrating crowdsourced annotations into reliable labels for performing supervised or semi-supervised learning. Our experiments show that OpinionRank performs favorably when compared against more highly parameterized algorithms. We also show that OpinionRank is scalable to very large datasets and numbers of label sources, and requires considerably fewer computational resources than previous approaches.


Open Knowledge Enrichment for Long-tail Entities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge bases (KBs) have gradually become a valuable asset for many AI applications. While many current KBs are quite large, they are widely acknowledged as incomplete, especially lacking facts of long-tail entities, e.g., less famous persons. Existing approaches enrich KBs mainly on completing missing links or filling missing values. However, they only tackle a part of the enrichment problem and lack specific considerations regarding long-tail entities. In this paper, we propose a full-fledged approach to knowledge enrichment, which predicts missing properties and infers true facts of long-tail entities from the open Web. Prior knowledge from popular entities is leveraged to improve every enrichment step. Our experiments on the synthetic and real-world datasets and comparison with related work demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the approach.


ClaimEval: Integrated and Flexible Framework for Claim Evaluation Using Credibility of Sources

AAAI Conferences

The World Wide Web (WWW) has become a rapidly growing platform consisting of numerous sources which provide supporting or contradictory information about claims (e.g., "Chicken meat is healthy"). In order to decide whether a claim is true or false, one needs to analyze content of different sources of information on the Web, measure credibility of information sources, and aggregate all these information. This is a tedious process and the Web search engines address only part of the overall problem, viz., producing only a list of relevant sources. In this paper, we present ClaimEval, a novel and integrated approach which given a set of claims to validate, extracts a set of pro and con arguments from the Web information sources, and jointly estimates credibility of sources and correctness of claims. ClaimEval uses Probabilistic Soft Logic (PSL), resulting in a flexible and principled framework which makes it easy to state and incorporate different forms of prior-knowledge. Through extensive experiments on real-world datasets, we demonstrate ClaimEval’s capability in determining validity of a set of claims, resulting in improved accuracy compared to state-of-the-art baselines.


Reliable Aggregation of Boolean Crowdsourced Tasks

AAAI Conferences

We propose novel algorithms for the problem of crowdsourcing binary labels. Such binary labeling tasks are very common in crowdsourcing platforms, for instance, to judge the appropriateness of web content or to flag vandalism. We propose two unsupervised algorithms: one simple to implement albeit derived heuristically, and one based on iterated bayesian parameter estimation of user reputation models. We provide mathematical insight into the benefits of the proposed algorithms over existing approaches, and we confirm these insights by showing that both algorithms offer improved performance on many occasions across both synthetic and real-world datasets obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk.