Nowadays, deep neural networks are widely used in mission critical systems such as healthcare, self-driving vehicles, and military which have direct impact on human lives. However, the black-box nature of deep neural networks challenges its use in mission critical applications, raising ethical and judicial concerns inducing lack of trust. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is a field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that promotes a set of tools, techniques, and algorithms that can generate high-quality interpretable, intuitive, human-understandable explanations of AI decisions. In addition to providing a holistic view of the current XAI landscape in deep learning, this paper provides mathematical summaries of seminal work. We start by proposing a taxonomy and categorizing the XAI techniques based on their scope of explanations, methodology behind the algorithms, and explanation level or usage which helps build trustworthy, interpretable, and self-explanatory deep learning models. We then describe the main principles used in XAI research and present the historical timeline for landmark studies in XAI from 2007 to 2020. After explaining each category of algorithms and approaches in detail, we then evaluate the explanation maps generated by eight XAI algorithms on image data, discuss the limitations of this approach, and provide potential future directions to improve XAI evaluation.
Arrieta, Alejandro Barredo, Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia, Del Ser, Javier, Bennetot, Adrien, Tabik, Siham, Barbado, Alberto, García, Salvador, Gil-López, Sergio, Molina, Daniel, Benjamins, Richard, Chatila, Raja, Herrera, Francisco
In the last years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has achieved a notable momentum that may deliver the best of expectations over many application sectors across the field. For this to occur, the entire community stands in front of the barrier of explainability, an inherent problem of AI techniques brought by sub-symbolism (e.g. ensembles or Deep Neural Networks) that were not present in the last hype of AI. Paradigms underlying this problem fall within the so-called eXplainable AI (XAI) field, which is acknowledged as a crucial feature for the practical deployment of AI models. This overview examines the existing literature in the field of XAI, including a prospect toward what is yet to be reached. We summarize previous efforts to define explainability in Machine Learning, establishing a novel definition that covers prior conceptual propositions with a major focus on the audience for which explainability is sought. We then propose and discuss about a taxonomy of recent contributions related to the explainability of different Machine Learning models, including those aimed at Deep Learning methods for which a second taxonomy is built. This literature analysis serves as the background for a series of challenges faced by XAI, such as the crossroads between data fusion and explainability. Our prospects lead toward the concept of Responsible Artificial Intelligence, namely, a methodology for the large-scale implementation of AI methods in real organizations with fairness, model explainability and accountability at its core. Our ultimate goal is to provide newcomers to XAI with a reference material in order to stimulate future research advances, but also to encourage experts and professionals from other disciplines to embrace the benefits of AI in their activity sectors, without any prior bias for its lack of interpretability.
There has recently been a surge of work in explanatory artificial intelligence (XAI). This research area tackles the important problem that complex machines and algorithms often cannot provide insights into their behavior and thought processes. XAI allows users and parts of the internal system to be more transparent, providing explanations of their decisions in some level of detail. These explanations are important to ensure algorithmic fairness, identify potential bias/problems in the training data, and to ensure that the algorithms perform as expected. However, explanations produced by these systems is neither standardized nor systematically assessed. In an effort to create best practices and identify open challenges, we provide our definition of explainability and show how it can be used to classify existing literature. We discuss why current approaches to explanatory methods especially for deep neural networks are insufficient. Finally, based on our survey, we conclude with suggested future research directions for explanatory artificial intelligence.
Deep neural network (DNN) is an indispensable machine learning tool for achieving human-level performance on many learning tasks. Yet, due to its black-box nature, it is inherently difficult to understand which aspects of the input data drive the decisions of the network. There are various real-world scenarios in which humans need to make actionable decisions based on the output DNNs. Such decision support systems can be found in critical domains, such as legislation, law enforcement, etc. It is important that the humans making high-level decisions can be sure that the DNN decisions are driven by combinations of data features that are appropriate in the context of the deployment of the decision support system and that the decisions made are legally or ethically defensible. Due to the incredible pace at which DNN technology is being developed, the development of new methods and studies on explaining the decision-making process of DNNs has blossomed into an active research field. A practitioner beginning to study explainable deep learning may be intimidated by the plethora of orthogonal directions the field is taking. This complexity is further exacerbated by the general confusion that exists in defining what it means to be able to explain the actions of a deep learning system and to evaluate a system's "ability to explain". To alleviate this problem, this article offers a "field guide" to deep learning explainability for those uninitiated in the field. The field guide: i) Discusses the traits of a deep learning system that researchers enhance in explainability research, ii) places explainability in the context of other related deep learning research areas, and iii) introduces three simple dimensions defining the space of foundational methods that contribute to explainable deep learning. The guide is designed as an easy-to-digest starting point for those just embarking in the field.
Deep Learning is a state-of-the-art technique to make inference on extensive or complex data. As a black box model due to their multilayer nonlinear structure, Deep Neural Networks are often criticized to be non-transparent and their predictions not traceable by humans. Furthermore, the models learn from artificial datasets, often with bias or contaminated discriminating content. Through their increased distribution, decision-making algorithms can contribute promoting prejudge and unfairness which is not easy to notice due to lack of transparency. Hence, scientists developed several so-called explanators or explainers which try to point out the connection between input and output to represent in a simplified way the inner structure of machine learning black boxes. In this survey we differ the mechanisms and properties of explaining systems for Deep Neural Networks for Computer Vision tasks. We give a comprehensive overview about taxonomy of related studies and compare several survey papers that deal with explainability in general. We work out the drawbacks and gaps and summarize further research ideas.