Paraconsistent logics constitute an important class of formalisms dealing with non-trivial reasoning from inconsistent premisses. In this paper, we introduce uniform axiomatisations for a family of nonmonotonic paraconsistent logics based on minimal inconsistency in terms of sequent-type proof systems. The latter are prominent and widely-used forms of calculi well-suited for analysing proof search. In particular, we provide sequent-type calculi for Priest's three-valued minimally inconsistent logic of paradox, and for four-valued paraconsistent inference relations due to Arieli and Avron. Our calculi follow the sequent method first introduced in the context of nonmonotonic reasoning by Bonatti and Olivetti, whose distinguishing feature is the use of a so-called rejection calculus for axiomatising invalid formulas. In fact, we present a general method to obtain sequent systems for any many-valued logic based on minimal inconsistency, yielding the calculi for the logics of Priest and of Arieli and Avron as special instances.
In order to more accurately situate and fit the neutrosophic logic into the framework of nonstandard analysis, we present the neutrosophic inequalities, neutrosophic equality, neutrosophic infimum and supremum, neutrosophic standard intervals, including the cases when the neutrosophic logic standard and nonstandard components T, I, F get values outside of the classical real unit interval [0, 1], and a brief evolution of neutrosophic operators. The paper intends to answer Imamura criticism that we found benefic in better understanding the nonstandard neutrosophic logic, although the nonstandard neutrosophic logic was never used in practical applications.
We present the state of the art in representing and reasoning with fuzzy knowledge in Semantic Web Languages such as triple languages RDF/RDFS, conceptual languages of the OWL 2 family and rule languages. We further show how one may generalise them to so-called annotation domains, that cover also e.g.
We consider the G\"odel bi-modal logic determined by fuzzy Kripke models where both the propositions and the accessibility relation are infinitely valued over the standard G\"odel algebra [0,1] and prove strong completeness of Fischer Servi intuitionistic modal logic IK plus the prelinearity axiom with respect to this semantics. We axiomatize also the bi-modal analogues of $T,$ $S4,$ and $S5$ obtained by restricting to models over frames satisfying the [0,1]-valued versions of the structural properties which characterize these logics. As application of the completeness theorems we obtain a representation theorem for bi-modal G\"odel algebras.
Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) are a family of logics which allow the representation of (and the reasoning with) structured knowledge affected by vagueness. Although most of the not very expressive crisp DLs, such as ALC, enjoy the Finite Model Property (FMP), this is not the case once we move into the fuzzy case. In this paper we show that if we allow arbitrary knowledge bases, then the fuzzy DLs ALC under Lukasiewicz and Product fuzzy logics do not verify the FMP even if we restrict to witnessed models; in other words, finite satisfiability and witnessed satisfiability are different for arbitrary knowledge bases. The aim of this paper is to point out the failure of FMP because it affects several algorithms published in the literature for reasoning under fuzzy ALC.