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Target Guided Emotion Aware Chat Machine

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The consistency of a response to a given post at semantic-level and emotional-level is essential for a dialogue system to deliver human-like interactions. However, this challenge is not well addressed in the literature, since most of the approaches neglect the emotional information conveyed by a post while generating responses. This article addresses this problem by proposing a unifed end-to-end neural architecture, which is capable of simultaneously encoding the semantics and the emotions in a post and leverage target information for generating more intelligent responses with appropriately expressed emotions. Extensive experiments on real-world data demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both content coherence and emotion appropriateness.


Emotion-aware Chat Machine: Automatic Emotional Response Generation for Human-like Emotional Interaction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The consistency of a response to a given post at semantic-level and emotional-level is essential for a dialogue system to deliver human-like interactions. However, this challenge is not well addressed in the literature, since most of the approaches neglect the emotional information conveyed by a post while generating responses. This article addresses this problem by proposing a unifed end-to-end neural architecture, which is capable of simultaneously encoding the semantics and the emotions in a post for generating more intelligent responses with appropriately expressed emotions. Extensive experiments on real-world data demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both content coherence and emotion appropriateness.


Affect-Driven Dialog Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The majority of current systems for end-to-end dialog generation focus on response quality without an explicit control over the affective content of the responses. In this paper, we present an affect-driven dialog system, which generates emotional responses in a controlled manner using a continuous representation of emotions. The system achieves this by modeling emotions at a word and sequence level using: (1) a vector representation of the desired emotion, (2) an affect regularizer, which penalizes neutral words, and (3) an affect sampling method, which forces the neural network to generate diverse words that are emotionally relevant. During inference, we use a reranking procedure that aims to extract the most emotionally relevant responses using a human-in-the-loop optimization process. We study the performance of our system in terms of both quantitative (BLEU score and response diversity), and qualitative (emotional appropriateness) measures.


Eliciting Positive Emotion through Affect-Sensitive Dialogue Response Generation: A Neural Network Approach

AAAI Conferences

An emotionally-competent computer agent could be a valuable assistive technology in performing various affective tasks. For example caring for the elderly, low-cost ubiquitous chat therapy, and providing emotional support in general, by promoting a more positive emotional state through dialogue system interaction. However, despite the increase of interest in this task, existing works face a number of shortcomings: system scalability, restrictive modeling, and weak emphasis on maximizing user emotional experience. In this paper, we build a fully data driven chat-oriented dialogue system that can dynamically mimic affective human interactions by utilizing a neural network architecture. In particular, we propose a sequence-to-sequence response generator that considers the emotional context of the dialogue. An emotion encoder is trained jointly with the entire network to encode and maintain the emotional context throughout the dialogue. The encoded emotion information is then incorporated in the response generation process. We train the network with a dialogue corpus that contains positive-emotion eliciting responses, collected through crowd-sourcing. Objective evaluation shows that incorporation of emotion into the training process helps reduce the perplexity of the generated responses, even when a small dataset is used. Subsequent subjective evaluation shows that the proposed method produces responses that are more natural and likely to elicit a more positive emotion.


Neural Response Generation With Dynamic Vocabularies

AAAI Conferences

We study response generation for open domain conversation in chatbots. Existing methods assume that words in responses are generated from an identical vocabulary regardless of their inputs, which not only makes them vulnerable to generic patterns and irrelevant noise, but also causes a high cost in decoding. We propose a dynamic vocabulary sequence-to-sequence (DVS2S) model which allows each input to possess their own vocabulary in decoding. In training, vocabulary construction and response generation are jointly learned by maximizing a lower bound of the true objective with a Monte Carlo sampling method. In inference, the model dynamically allocates a small vocabulary for an input with the word prediction model, and conducts decoding only with the small vocabulary. Because of the dynamic vocabulary mechanism, DVS2S eludes many generic patterns and irrelevant words in generation, and enjoys efficient decoding at the same time. Experimental results on both automatic metrics and human annotations show that DVS2S can significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods in terms of response quality, but only requires 60% decoding time compared to the most efficient baseline.