In comparison to the interpretation of classification models, the explanation of sequence generation models is also an important problem, however it has seen little attention. In this work, we study model-agnostic explanations of a representative text generation task -- dialogue response generation. Dialog response generation is challenging with its open-ended sentences and multiple acceptable responses. To gain insights into the reasoning process of a generation model, we propose anew method, local explanation of response generation (LERG) that regards the explanations as the mutual interaction of segments in input and output sentences. LERG views the sequence prediction as uncertainty estimation of a human response and then creates explanations by perturbing the input and calculating the certainty change over the human response. We show that LERG adheres to desired properties of explanations for text generation including unbiased approximation, consistency and cause identification. Empirically, our results show that our method consistently improves other widely used methods on proposed automatic- and human- evaluation metrics for this new task by 4.4-12.8%. Our analysis demonstrates that LERG can extract both explicit and implicit relations between input and output segments.
Rationality and emotion are two fundamental elements of humans. Endowing agents with rationality and emotion has been one of the major milestones in AI. However, in the field of conversational AI, most existing models only specialize in one aspect and neglect the other, which often leads to dull or unrelated responses. In this paper, we hypothesize that combining rationality and emotion into conversational agents can improve response quality. To test the hypothesis, we focus on one fundamental aspect of rationality, i.e., commonsense, and propose CARE, a novel model for commonsense-aware emotional response generation. Specifically, we first propose a framework to learn and construct commonsense-aware emotional latent concepts of the response given an input message and a desired emotion. We then propose three methods to collaboratively incorporate the latent concepts into response generation. Experimental results on two large-scale datasets support our hypothesis and show that our model can produce more accurate and commonsense-aware emotional responses and achieve better human ratings than state-of-the-art models that only specialize in one aspect.
Junior, Mário Escarce (Lancaster University) | Martins, Georgia Rossmann (Phersu Interactive) | Marcolino, Leandro Soriano (Lancaster University) | Passos, Yuri Tavares dos (Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia)
Normally agents cooperate when they have a joint goal or are able to get a higher payoff by doing so. We present a new perspective, where an agent cooperates with another without an explicit intention. We study this perspective in the context of Art Games, by introducing a novel algorithm where a human agent cooperates with a video game system in generating music in an emergent fashion, without needing awareness that he/she is doing so. We present a theoretical analysis of our system, and preliminary experiments with human subjects.
Open-domain response generation is the task of generating sensible and informative re-sponses to the source sentence. However, neural models tend to generate safe and mean-ingless responses. While cue-word introducing approaches encourage responses with concrete semantics and have shown tremendous potential, they still fail to explore di-verse responses during decoding. In this paper, we propose a novel but natural approach that can produce multiple cue-words during decoding, and then uses the produced cue-words to drive decoding and shrinks the decoding vocabulary. Thus the neural genera-tion model can explore the full space of responses and discover informative ones with efficiency. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms several strong baseline models with much lower decoding complexity. Especially, our approach can converge to concrete semantics more efficiently during decoding.
Emotion-controllable response generation is an attractive and valuable task that aims to make open-domain conversations more empathetic and engaging. Existing methods mainly enhance the emotion expression by adding regularization terms to standard cross-entropy loss and thus influence the training process. However, due to the lack of further consideration of content consistency, the common problem of response generation tasks, safe response, is intensified. Besides, query emotions that can help model the relationship between query and response are simply ignored in previous models, which would further hurt the coherence. To alleviate these problems, we propose a novel framework named Curriculum Dual Learning (CDL) which extends the emotion-controllable response generation to a dual task to generate emotional responses and emotional queries alternatively. CDL utilizes two rewards focusing on emotion and content to improve the duality. Additionally, it applies curriculum learning to gradually generate high-quality responses based on the difficulties of expressing various emotions. Experimental results show that CDL significantly outperforms the baselines in terms of coherence, diversity, and relation to emotion factors.