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The Dangers of Post-hoc Interpretability: Unjustified Counterfactual Explanations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Post-hoc interpretability approaches have been proven to be powerful tools to generate explanations for the predictions made by a trained black-box model. However, they create the risk of having explanations that are a result of some artifacts learned by the model instead of actual knowledge from the data. This paper focuses on the case of counterfactual explanations and asks whether the generated instances can be justified, i.e. continuously connected to some ground-truth data. We evaluate the risk of generating unjustified counterfactual examples by investigating the local neighborhoods of instances whose predictions are to be explained and show that this risk is quite high for several datasets. Furthermore, we show that most state of the art approaches do not differentiate justified from unjustified counterfactual examples, leading to less useful explanations.


Convex Density Constraints for Computing Plausible Counterfactual Explanations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The increasing deployment of machine learning as well as legal regulations such as EU's GDPR cause a need for user-friendly explanations of decisions proposed by machine learning models. Counterfactual explanations are considered as one of the most popular techniques to explain a specific decision of a model. While the computation of "arbitrary" counterfactual explanations is well studied, it is still an open research problem how to efficiently compute plausible and feasible counterfactual explanations. We build upon recent work and propose and study a formal definition of plausible counterfactual explanations. In particular, we investigate how to use density estimators for enforcing plausibility and feasibility of counterfactual explanations. For the purpose of efficient computations, we propose convex density constraints that ensure that the resulting counterfactual is located in a region of the data space of high density.


Causal Interpretability for Machine Learning -- Problems, Methods and Evaluation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning models have had discernible achievements in a myriad of applications. However, most of these models are black-boxes, and it is obscure how the decisions are made by them. This makes the models unreliable and untrustworthy. To provide insights into the decision making processes of these models, a variety of traditional interpretable models have been proposed. Moreover, to generate more human-friendly explanations, recent work on interpretability tries to answer questions related to causality such as "Why does this model makes such decisions?" or "Was it a specific feature that caused the decision made by the model?". In this work, models that aim to answer causal questions are referred to as causal interpretable models. The existing surveys have covered concepts and methodologies of traditional interpretability. In this work, we present a comprehensive survey on causal interpretable models from the aspects of the problems and methods. In addition, this survey provides in-depth insights into the existing evaluation metrics for measuring interpretability, which can help practitioners understand for what scenarios each evaluation metric is suitable.


Interpretable Credit Application Predictions With Counterfactual Explanations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We predict credit applications with off-the-shelf, interchangeable black-box classifiers and we explain single predictions with counterfactual explanations. Counterfactual explanations expose the minimal changes required on the input data to obtain a different result e.g., approved vs rejected application. Despite their effectiveness, counterfactuals are mainly designed for changing an undesired outcome of a prediction i.e. loan rejected. Counterfactuals, however, can be difficult to interpret, especially when a high number of features are involved in the explanation. Our contribution is two-fold: i) we propose positive counterfactuals, i.e. we adapt counterfactual explanations to also explain accepted loan applications, and ii) we propose two weighting strategies to generate more interpretable counterfactuals. Experiments on the HELOC loan applications dataset show that our contribution outperforms the baseline counterfactual generation strategy, by leading to smaller and hence more interpretable counterfactuals.


Generating Counterfactual and Contrastive Explanations using SHAP

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the advent of GDPR, the domain of explainable AI and model interpretability has gained added GDPR's Right to Explanation impetus. Methods to extract and communicate visibility General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a regulation into decision-making models have become focused on data protection and regulations regarding algorithmic legal requirement. Two specific types of explanations, decision-making and is abiding on companies operating contrastive and counterfactual have been in the European Union. One of the controversial regulations identified as suitable for human understanding. In of this directive is the'Right to Explanation' which allows this paper, we propose a model agnostic method those significantly (socially) impacted by the decision of an and its systemic implementation to generate these algorithm to demand an explanation or rationale behind the explanations using shapely additive explanations decision (Eg: Being denied a loan application).