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Semantic Similarity To Improve Question Understanding in a Virtual Patient

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Abstract--In medicine, a communicating virtual patient or doctor allows students to train in medical diagnosis and dev elop skills to conduct a medical consultation. In this paper, we describe a conversational virtual standardized patient sy stem to allow medical students to simulate a diagnosis strategy o f an abdominal surgical emergency. We exploited the semantic properties captured by distributed word representations t o search for similar questions in the virtual patient dialogue syste m. We created two dialogue systems that were evaluated on dataset s collected during tests with students. The first system based on handcrafted rules obtains 92.29% as F 1-score on the studied clinical case while the second system that combines rules an d semantic similarity achieves 94.88%. It represents an error reduction of 9.70% as compared to the rules-only-based system. The medical diagnosis practice is traditionally bedside taught. Theoretical courses are supplemented by internshi ps in hospital services. The medical student observes the practi ce of doctors and interns and practices himself under their contr ol. This type of learning has the disadvantage to confront immediately the medical student with complex situations withou t practical training (technical and human) beforehand.


Computer-Based Medical Consultations: MYCIN

Classics

This text is a description of a computer-based system designed to assist physicians with clinical decision-making. This system, termed MYCIN, utilizes computer techniques derived principally from the subfield of computer science known as artificial intelligence (AI). MYCIN's task is to assist with the decisions involved in the selection of appropriate therapy for patients with infections.

MYCIN contains considerable medical expertise and is also a novel application of computing technology. Thus, this text is addressed both to members of the medical community, who may have limited computer science backgrounds, and to computer scientists with limited knowledge of medical computing and clinical medicine. Some sections of the text may be of greater interest to one community than to the other. A guide to the text follows so that you may select those portions most pertinent to your particular interests and background.

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Deep learning accurately stains digital biopsy slides

#artificialintelligence

Tissue biopsy slides stained using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) dyes are a cornerstone of histopathology, especially for pathologists needing to diagnose and determine the stage of cancers. A research team led by MIT scientists at the Media Lab, in collaboration with clinicians at Stanford University School of Medicine and Harvard Medical School, now shows that digital scans of these biopsy slides can be stained computationally, using deep learning algorithms trained on data from physically dyed slides. Pathologists who examined the computationally stained H&E slide images in a blind study could not tell them apart from traditionally stained slides while using them to accurately identify and grade prostate cancers. What's more, the slides could also be computationally "de-stained" in a way that resets them to an original state for use in future studies, the researchers conclude in their May 20 study published in JAMA Network. This process of computational digital staining and de-staining preserves small amounts of tissue biopsied from cancer patients and allows researchers and clinicians to analyze slides for multiple kinds of diagnostic and prognostic tests, without needing to extract additional tissue sections.


GPT-3 Creative Fiction

#artificialintelligence

What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.


An AI Framework to Teach English as a Foreign Language: CSIEC

AI Magazine

CSIEC (Computer Simulation in Educational Communication), is not only an intelligent web-based human-computer dialogue system with natural language for English instruction, but also a learning assessment system for learners and teachers. Its multiple functions—including grammar-based gap filling exercises, scenario show, free chatting and chatting on a given topic—can satisfy the various requirements for students with different backgrounds and learning abilities. After a brief explanation of the conception of our dialogue system, as well as a survey of related works, we will illustrate the system structure, and describe its pedagogical functions with the underlying AI techniques in detail such as NLP and rule-based reasoning. We will summarize the free Internet usage within a six month period and its integration into English classes in universities and middle schools. The evaluation findings about the class integration show that the chatting function has been improved and frequently utilized by the users, and the application of the CSIEC system on English instruction can motivate the learners to practice English and enhance their learning process. Finally, we will conclude with potential improvements.