Machine learning approaches to relation extraction are typically supervised and require expensive labeled data. To break the bottleneck of labeled data, a promising approach is to exploit easily obtained indirect supervision knowledge – which we usually refer to as distant supervision (DS). However, traditional DS methods mostly only exploit one specific kind of indirect supervision knowledge – the relations/facts in a given knowledge base, thus often suffer from the problem of lack of supervision. In this paper, we propose a global distant supervision model for relation extraction, which can: 1) compensate the lack of supervision with a wide variety of indirect supervision knowledge; and 2) reduce the uncertainty in DS by performing joint inference across relation instances. Experimental results show that, by exploiting the consistency between relation labels, the consistency between relations and arguments, and the consistency between neighbor instances using Markov logic, our method significantly outperforms traditional DS approaches.
China aims to pass a national supervision law and set up a new commission at the annual parliament meetings early next year. The new National Supervision Commission will work with the Communist Party's anti-graft body, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, expanding the purview of Xi's anti-graft campaign to include employees at state-backed institutions.
A standard approach to learning object category detectors is to provide strong supervision in the form of a region of interest (ROI) specifying each instance of the object in the training images. In this work are goal is to learn from heterogeneous labels, in which some images are only weakly supervised, specifying only the presence or absence of the object or a weak indication of object location, whilst others are fully annotated. To this end we develop a discriminative learning approach and make two contributions: (i) we propose a structured output formulation for weakly annotated images where full annotations are treated as latent variables; and (ii) we propose to optimize a ranking objective function, allowing our method to more effectively use negatively labeled images to improve detection average precision performance. The method is demonstrated on the benchmark INRIA pedestrian detection dataset of Dalal and Triggs and the PASCAL VOC dataset, and it is shown that for a significant proportion of weakly supervised images the performance achieved is very similar to the fully supervised (state of the art) results. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
Task-oriented dialog presents a difficult challenge encompassing multiple problems including multi-turn language understanding and generation, knowledge retrieval and reasoning, and action prediction. Modern dialog systems typically begin by converting conversation history to a symbolic object referred to as belief state by using supervised learning. The belief state is then used to reason on an external knowledge source whose result along with the conversation history is used in action prediction and response generation tasks independently. Such a pipeline of individually optimized components not only makes the development process cumbersome but also makes it non-trivial to leverage session-level user reinforcement signals. In this paper, we develop Neural Assistant: a single neural network model that takes conversation history and an external knowledge source as input and jointly produces both text response and action to be taken by the system as output. The model learns to reason on the provided knowledge source with weak supervision signal coming from the text generation and the action prediction tasks, hence removing the need for belief state annotations. In the MultiWOZ dataset, we study the effect of distant supervision, and the size of knowledge base on model performance. We find that the Neural Assistant without belief states is able to incorporate external knowledge information achieving higher factual accuracy scores compared to Transformer. In settings comparable to reported baseline systems, Neural Assistant when provided with oracle belief state significantly improves language generation performance.
Since manually labeling training data is slow and expensive, recent industrial and scientific research efforts have turned to weaker or noisier forms of supervision sources. However, existing weak supervision approaches fail to model multi-resolution sources for sequential data, like video, that can assign labels to individual elements or collections of elements in a sequence. A key challenge in weak supervision is estimating the unknown accuracies and correlations of these sources without using labeled data. Multi-resolution sources exacerbate this challenge due to complex correlations and sample complexity that scales in the length of the sequence. We propose Dugong, the first framework to model multi-resolution weak supervision sources with complex correlations to assign probabilistic labels to training data.