Machine learning approaches to relation extraction are typically supervised and require expensive labeled data. To break the bottleneck of labeled data, a promising approach is to exploit easily obtained indirect supervision knowledge – which we usually refer to as distant supervision (DS). However, traditional DS methods mostly only exploit one specific kind of indirect supervision knowledge – the relations/facts in a given knowledge base, thus often suffer from the problem of lack of supervision. In this paper, we propose a global distant supervision model for relation extraction, which can: 1) compensate the lack of supervision with a wide variety of indirect supervision knowledge; and 2) reduce the uncertainty in DS by performing joint inference across relation instances. Experimental results show that, by exploiting the consistency between relation labels, the consistency between relations and arguments, and the consistency between neighbor instances using Markov logic, our method significantly outperforms traditional DS approaches.
Agent supervision is a form of control/customization where a supervisor restricts the behavior of an agent to enforce certain requirements, while leaving the agent as much autonomy as possible. In this work, we investigate supervision of an agent that may acquire new knowledge about her environment during execution, for example, by sensing. Thus we consider an agent's online executions, where, as she executes the program, at each time point she must make decisions on what to do next based on what her current knowledge is. This is done in a setting based on the situation calculus and a variant of the ConGolog programming language. To reason about such agents, we first define a notion of online situation-determined agent which ensures that for any sequence of actions that the agent can perform online, the resulting agent configuration is unique.
Natarajan, Sriraam (Wake Forest University) | Picado, Jose (Wake Forest University) | Khot, Tushar (University of Wisconsin-Madison) | Kersting, Kristian (University of Bonn) | Re, Cristopher (University of Wisconsin-Madison) | Shavlik, Jude (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
One of the challenges to information extraction is the requirement of human annotated examples. Current successful approaches alleviate this problem by employing some form of distant supervision i.e., look into knowledge bases such as Freebase as a source of supervision to create more examples. While this is perfectly reasonable, most distant supervision methods rely on a hand coded background knowledge that explicitly looks for patterns in text. In this work, we take a different approach -- we create weakly supervised examples for relations by using commonsense knowledge. The key innovation is that this commonsense knowledge is completely independent of the natural language text. This helps when learning the full model for information extraction as against simply learning the parameters of a known CRF or MLN. We demonstrate on two domains that this form of weak supervision yields superior results when learning structure compared to simply using the gold standard labels.
For a topic that generates so much interest, it is surprisingly difficult to find a concise definition of machine learning that satisfies everyone. Complicating things further is the fact that much of machine learning, at least in terms of its enterprise value, looks somewhat like existing analytics and business intelligence tools. To set the course for this three-part series that puts the scope of machine learning into enterprise context, we define machine learning as software that extracts high-value knowledge from data with little or no human supervision. Academics who work in formal machine learning theory may object to a definition that limits machine learning to software. In the enterprise, however, machine learning is software.
Deep learning for supervised learning has achieved astonishing performance in various machine learning applications. However, annotated data is expensive and rare. In practice, only a small portion of data samples are annotated. Pseudo-ensembling-based approaches have achieved state-of-the-art results in computer vision related tasks. However, it still relies on the quality of an initial model built by labeled data. Less labeled data may degrade model performance a lot. Domain constraint is another way regularize the posterior but has some limitation. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy domain-constraint-based framework which loses the requirement of traditional constraint learning and enhances the model quality for semi supervision. Simulations results show the effectiveness of our design.