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Autoencoding Variational Inference For Topic Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Topic models are one of the most popular methods for learning representations of text, but a major challenge is that any change to the topic model requires mathematically deriving a new inference algorithm. A promising approach to address this problem is autoencoding variational Bayes (AEVB), but it has proven diffi- cult to apply to topic models in practice. We present what is to our knowledge the first effective AEVB based inference method for latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which we call Autoencoded Variational Inference For Topic Model (AVITM). This model tackles the problems caused for AEVB by the Dirichlet prior and by component collapsing. We find that AVITM matches traditional methods in accuracy with much better inference time. Indeed, because of the inference network, we find that it is unnecessary to pay the computational cost of running variational optimization on test data. Because AVITM is black box, it is readily applied to new topic models. As a dramatic illustration of this, we present a new topic model called ProdLDA, that replaces the mixture model in LDA with a product of experts. By changing only one line of code from LDA, we find that ProdLDA yields much more interpretable topics, even if LDA is trained via collapsed Gibbs sampling.


ATM:Adversarial-neural Topic Model

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Topic models are widely used for thematic structure discovery in text. But traditional topic models often require dedicated inference procedures for specific tasks at hand. Also, they are not designed to generate word-level semantic representations. To address these limitations, we propose a topic modeling approach based on Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs), called Adversarial-neural Topic Model (ATM). The proposed ATM models topics with Dirichlet prior and employs a generator network to capture the semantic patterns among latent topics. Meanwhile, the generator could also produce word-level semantic representations. To illustrate the feasibility of porting ATM to tasks other than topic modeling, we apply ATM for open domain event extraction. Our experimental results on the two public corpora show that ATM generates more coherence topics, outperforming a number of competitive baselines. Moreover, ATM is able to extract meaningful events from news articles.


Continuous Semantic Topic Embedding Model Using Variational Autoencoder

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes the continuous semantic topic embedding model (CSTEM) which finds latent topic variables in documents using continuous semantic distance function between the topics and the words by means of the variational autoencoder(VAE). The semantic distance could be represented by any symmetric bell-shaped geometric distance function on the Euclidean space, for which the Mahalanobis distance is used in this paper. In order for the semantic distance to perform more properly, we newly introduce an additional model parameter for each word to take out the global factor from this distance indicating how likely it occurs regardless of its topic. It certainly improves the problem that the Gaussian distribution which is used in previous topic model with continuous word embedding could not explain the semantic relation correctly and helps to obtain the higher topic coherence. Through the experiments with the dataset of 20 Newsgroup, NIPS papers and CNN/Dailymail corpus, the performance of the recent state-of-the-art models is accomplished by our model as well as generating topic embedding vectors which makes possible to observe where the topic vectors are embedded with the word vectors in the real Euclidean space and how the topics are related each other semantically.


Dirichlet Variational Autoencoder

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes Dirichlet Variational Autoencoder (DirVAE) using a Dirichlet prior for a continuous latent variable that exhibits the characteristic of the categorical probabilities. To infer the parameters of DirVAE, we utilize the stochastic gradient method by approximating the Gamma distribution, which is a component of the Dirichlet distribution, with the inverse Gamma CDF approximation. Additionally, we reshape the component collapsing issue by investigating two problem sources, which are decoder weight collapsing and latent value collapsing, and we show that DirVAE has no component collapsing; while Gaussian VAE exhibits the decoder weight collapsing and Stick-Breaking VAE shows the latent value collapsing. The experimental results show that 1) DirVAE models the latent representation result with the best log-likelihood compared to the baselines; and 2) DirVAE produces more interpretable latent values with no collapsing issues which the baseline models suffer from. Also, we show that the learned latent representation from the DirVAE achieves the best classification accuracy in the semi-supervised and the supervised classification tasks on MNIST, OMNIGLOT, and SVHN compared to the baseline VAEs. Finally, we demonstrated that the DirVAE augmented topic models show better performances in most cases.


Gamma Belief Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

To infer multilayer deep representations of high-dimensional discrete and nonnegative real vectors, we propose an augmentable gamma belief network (GBN) that factorizes each of its hidden layers into the product of a sparse connection weight matrix and the nonnegative real hidden units of the next layer. The GBN's hidden layers are jointly trained with an upward-downward Gibbs sampler that solves each layer with the same subroutine. The gamma-negative binomial process combined with a layer-wise training strategy allows inferring the width of each layer given a fixed budget on the width of the first layer. Example results illustrate interesting relationships between the width of the first layer and the inferred network structure, and demonstrate that the GBN can add more layers to improve its performance in both unsupervisedly extracting features and predicting heldout data. For exploratory data analysis, we extract trees and subnetworks from the learned deep network to visualize how the very specific factors discovered at the first hidden layer and the increasingly more general factors discovered at deeper hidden layers are related to each other, and we generate synthetic data by propagating random variables through the deep network from the top hidden layer back to the bottom data layer.