This article briefs you about Markov Networks which falls under the family of Undirected Graphical Models (UGM). This article is a follow-up to Bayesian Network, which is a type of Directed Graphical Models. Key Motivation behind these networks is to parameterize the Joint Probability Distribution based on Local Independencies between Random Variables. Generally, Bayesian Network requires to pre-define a directionality to assert an influence of random variable. But there might be cases where interaction between nodes ( or random variables) are symmetric in nature, and we would like to have a model which can represent this symmetricity without directional influence.

We present a flexible framework for implementing reasoning with uncertainty: Semistructured Probabilistic Databases. This framework bridges the gap between the process of obtaining probabilistic information from data and its use in AI applications by providing the facilities to store and query diverse and complex probabilistic data.

Measures of uncertainty and divergence are introduced for interval-valued probability distributions and are shown to have desirable mathematical properties. A maximum uncertainty inference procedure for marginal interval distributions is presented. A technique for reconstruction of interval distributions from projections is developed based on this inference procedure

Fertig, Kenneth W., Breese, John S.

We describe a mechanism for performing probabilistic reasoning in influence diagrams using interval rather than point valued probabilities. We derive the procedures for node removal (corresponding to conditional expectation) and arc reversal (corresponding to Bayesian conditioning) in influence diagrams where lower bounds on probabilities are stored at each node. The resulting bounds for the transformed diagram are shown to be optimal within the class of constraints on probability distributions that can be expressed exclusively as lower bounds on the component probabilities of the diagram. Sequences of these operations can be performed to answer probabilistic queries with indeterminacies in the input and for performing sensitivity analysis on an influence diagram. The storage requirements and computational complexity of this approach are comparable to those for point-valued probabilistic inference mechanisms, making the approach attractive for performing sensitivity analysis and where probability information is not available. Limited empirical data on an implementation of the methodology are provided.

Pennock, David M., Wellman, Michael P.

Graphical models based on conditional independence support concise encodings of the subjective belief of a single agent. A natural question is whether the consensus belief of a group of agents can be represented with equal parsimony. We prove, under relatively mild assumptions, that even if everyone agrees on a common graph topology, no method of combining beliefs can maintain that structure. Even weaker conditions rule out local aggregation within conditional probability tables. On a more positive note, we show that if probabilities are combined with the logarithmic opinion pool (LogOP), then commonly held Markov independencies are maintained. This suggests a straightforward procedure for constructing a consensus Markov network. We describe an algorithm for computing the LogOP with time complexity comparable to that of exact Bayesian inference.