Next-generation wireless networks (NGWN) have a substantial potential in terms of supporting a broad range of complex compelling applications both in military and civilian fields, where the users are able to enjoy high-rate, low-latency, low-cost and reliable information services. Achieving this ambitious goal requires new radio techniques for adaptive learning and intelligent decision making because of the complex heterogeneous nature of the network structures and wireless services. Machine learning algorithms have great success in supporting big data analytics, efficient parameter estimation and interactive decision making. Hence, in this article, we review the thirty-year history of machine learning by elaborating on supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning and deep learning, respectively. Furthermore, we investigate their employment in the compelling applications of NGWNs, including heterogeneous networks (HetNets), cognitive radios (CR), Internet of things (IoT), machine to machine networks (M2M), and so on. This article aims for assisting the readers in clarifying the motivation and methodology of the various machine learning algorithms, so as to invoke them for hitherto unexplored services as well as scenarios of future wireless networks.
ABSTRACT Massive multiple-input multiple-output antenna systems, millimeter wave communications, and ultra-dense networks have been widely perceived as the three key enablers that facilitate the development and deployment of 5G systems. This article discusses the intelligent agent that combines sensing, learning, and optimizing to facilitate these enablers. We present a flexible, rapidly deployable, and cross-layer artificial intelligence (AI)-based framework to enable the imminent and future demands on 5G and beyond. We present example AIenabled 5G use cases that accommodate important 5G-specific capabilities and discuss the value of AI for enabling network evolution. I. Introduction Does 5G cellular communications technology in the age of intelligence really look like the Thomas W. Lawson Schooner (the last of the large cargo sailing ships) of modern times? However, concerns are raised whether this is a revolutionary leap from today's wireless communications or a simple piling upof less innovative wireless functionalities. The International TelecommunicationUnion (ITU) classifies 5G into three categories of usage scenarios: enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB),massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low latency communication (URLLC) to account for more diverse services and resourcehungry applications.eMBB is a service category that addresses bandwidth-hungryapplications, such as massive video streaming and virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR). URLLC is a service category that supports latency sensitive services including autonomous driving,drones and the tactile Internet.
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are networks of nodes equipped with cognitive radios that can optimize performance by adapting to network conditions. While cognitive radio networks (CRN) are envisioned as intelligent networks, relatively little research has focused on the network level functionality of CRNs. Although various routing protocols, incorporating varying degrees of adaptiveness, have been proposed for CRNs, it is imperative for the long term success of CRNs that the design of cognitive routing protocols be pursued by the research community. Cognitive routing protocols are envisioned as routing protocols that fully and seamless incorporate AI-based techniques into their design. In this paper, we provide a self-contained tutorial on various AI and machine-learning techniques that have been, or can be, used for developing cognitive routing protocols. We also survey the application of various classes of AI techniques to CRNs in general, and to the problem of routing in particular. We discuss various decision making techniques and learning techniques from AI and document their current and potential applications to the problem of routing in CRNs. We also highlight the various inference, reasoning, modeling, and learning sub tasks that a cognitive routing protocol must solve. Finally, open research issues and future directions of work are identified.
Next-generation wireless networks must support ultra-reliable, low-latency communication and intelligently manage a massive number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in real-time, within a highly dynamic environment. This need for stringent communication quality-of-service (QoS) requirements as well as mobile edge and core intelligence can only be realized by integrating fundamental notions of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning across the wireless infrastructure and end-user devices. In this context, this paper provides a comprehensive tutorial that introduces the main concepts of machine learning, in general, and artificial neural networks (ANNs), in particular, and their potential applications in wireless communications. For this purpose, we present a comprehensive overview on a number of key types of neural networks that include feed-forward, recurrent, spiking, and deep neural networks. For each type of neural network, we present the basic architecture and training procedure, as well as the associated challenges and opportunities. Then, we provide an in-depth overview on the variety of wireless communication problems that can be addressed using ANNs, ranging from communication using unmanned aerial vehicles to virtual reality and edge caching.For each individual application, we present the main motivation for using ANNs along with the associated challenges while also providing a detailed example for a use case scenario and outlining future works that can be addressed using ANNs. In a nutshell, this article constitutes one of the first holistic tutorials on the development of machine learning techniques tailored to the needs of future wireless networks.
The paper presents a novel approach of spoofing wireless signals by using a general adversarial network (GAN) to generate and transmit synthetic signals that cannot be reliably distinguished from intended signals. It is of paramount importance to authenticate wireless signals at the PHY layer before they proceed through the receiver chain. For that purpose, various waveform, channel, and radio hardware features that are inherent to original wireless signals need to be captured. In the meantime, adversaries become sophisticated with the cognitive radio capability to record, analyze, and manipulate signals before spoofing. Building upon deep learning techniques, this paper introduces a spoofing attack by an adversary pair of a transmitter and a receiver that assume the generator and discriminator roles in the GAN and play a minimax game to generate the best spoofing signals that aim to fool the best trained defense mechanism. The output of this approach is two-fold. From the attacker point of view, a deep learning-based spoofing mechanism is trained to potentially fool a defense mechanism such as RF fingerprinting. From the defender point of view, a deep learning-based defense mechanism is trained against potential spoofing attacks when an adversary pair of a transmitter and a receiver cooperates. The probability that the spoofing signal is misclassified as the intended signal is measured for random signal, replay, and GAN-based spoofing attacks. Results show that the GAN-based spoofing attack provides a major increase in the success probability of wireless signal spoofing even when a deep learning classifier is used as the defense.