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Latent Compositional Representations Improve Systematic Generalization in Grounded Question Answering

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Answering questions that involve multi-step reasoning requires decomposing them and using the answers of intermediate steps to reach the final answer. However, state-of-the-art models in grounded question answering often do not explicitly perform decomposition, leading to difficulties in generalization to out-of-distribution examples. In this work, we propose a model that computes a representation and denotation for all question spans in a bottom-up, compositional manner using a CKY-style parser. Our model effectively induces latent trees, driven by end-to-end (the answer) supervision only. We show that this inductive bias towards tree structures dramatically improves systematic generalization to out-of-distribution examples compared to strong baselines on an arithmetic expressions benchmark as well as on CLOSURE, a dataset that focuses on systematic generalization of models for grounded question answering. On this challenging dataset, our model reaches an accuracy of 92.8%, significantly higher than prior models that almost perfectly solve the task on a random, in-distribution split.


The Neuro-Symbolic Concept Learner: Interpreting Scenes, Words, and Sentences From Natural Supervision

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose the Neuro-Symbolic Concept Learner (NS-CL), a model that learns visual concepts, words, and semantic parsing of sentences without explicit supervision on any of them; instead, our model learns by simply looking at images and reading paired questions and answers. Our model builds an object-based scene representation and translates sentences into executable, symbolic programs. To bridge the learning of two modules, we use a neuro-symbolic reasoning module that executes these programs on the latent scene representation. Analogical to human concept learning, the perception module learns visual concepts based on the language description of the object being referred to. Meanwhile, the learned visual concepts facilitate learning new words and parsing new sentences. We use curriculum learning to guide the searching over the large compositional space of images and language. Extensive experiments demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model on learning visual concepts, word representations, and semantic parsing of sentences. Further, our method allows easy generalization to new object attributes, compositions, language concepts, scenes and questions, and even new program domains. It also empowers applications including visual question answering and bidirectional image-text retrieval.


SPARQA: Skeleton-based Semantic Parsing for Complex Questions over Knowledge Bases

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Semantic parsing transforms a natural language question into a formal query over a knowledge base. Many existing methods rely on syntactic parsing like dependencies. However, the accuracy of producing such expressive formalisms is not satisfying on long complex questions. In this paper, we propose a novel skeleton grammar to represent the high-level structure of a complex question. This dedicated coarse-grained formalism with a BERT-based parsing algorithm helps to improve the accuracy of the downstream fine-grained semantic parsing. Besides, to align the structure of a question with the structure of a knowledge base, our multi-strategy method combines sentence-level and word-level semantics. Our approach shows promising performance on several datasets.


Open-Vocabulary Semantic Parsing with both Distributional Statistics and Formal Knowledge

AAAI Conferences

Traditional semantic parsers map language onto compositional, executable queries in a fixed schema. This mapping allows them to effectively leverage the information contained in large, formal knowledge bases (KBs, e.g., Freebase) to answer questions, but it is also fundamentally limiting---these semantic parsers can only assign meaning to language that falls within the KB's manually-produced schema. Recently proposed methods for open vocabulary semantic parsing overcome this limitation by learning execution models for arbitrary language, essentially using a text corpus as a kind of knowledge base. However, all prior approaches to open vocabulary semantic parsing replace a formal KB with textual information, making no use of the KB in their models. We show how to combine the disparate representations used by these two approaches, presenting for the first time a semantic parser that (1) produces compositional, executable representations of language, (2) can successfully leverage the information contained in both a formal KB and a large corpus, and (3) is not limited to the schema of the underlying KB. We demonstrate significantly improved performance over state-of-the-art baselines on an open-domain natural language question answering task.


Question Answering over Knowledge Bases by Leveraging Semantic Parsing and Neuro-Symbolic Reasoning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge base question answering (KBQA) is an important task in Natural Language Processing. Existing approaches face significant challenges including complex question understanding, necessity for reasoning, and lack of large training datasets. In this work, we propose a semantic parsing and reasoning-based Neuro-Symbolic Question Answering(NSQA) system, that leverages (1) Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) parses for task-independent question under-standing; (2) a novel path-based approach to transform AMR parses into candidate logical queries that are aligned to the KB; (3) a neuro-symbolic reasoner called Logical Neural Net-work (LNN) that executes logical queries and reasons over KB facts to provide an answer; (4) system of systems approach,which integrates multiple, reusable modules that are trained specifically for their individual tasks (e.g. semantic parsing,entity linking, and relationship linking) and do not require end-to-end training data. NSQA achieves state-of-the-art performance on QALD-9 and LC-QuAD 1.0. NSQA's novelty lies in its modular neuro-symbolic architecture and its task-general approach to interpreting natural language questions.