Visualizing Attention in Transformer-Based Language Representation Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present an open-source tool for visualizing multi-head self-attention in Transformer-based language representation models. The tool extends earlier work by visualizing attention at three levels of granularity: the attention-head level, the model level, and the neuron level. We describe how each of these views can help to interpret the model, and we demonstrate the tool on the BERT model and the OpenAI GPT-2 model. We also present three use cases for analyzing GPT-2: detecting model bias, identifying recurring patterns, and linking neurons to model behavior.


Revealing the Dark Secrets of BERT

arXiv.org Machine Learning

BERT -based architectures currently give state-of-the-art performance on many NLP tasks, but little is known about the exact mechanisms that contribute to its success. In the current work, we focus on the interpretation of self-attention, which is one of the fundamental underlying components of BERT. Using a subset of GLUE tasks and a set of handcrafted features-of-interest, we propose the methodology and carry out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the information encoded by the individual BERT's heads. Our findings suggest that there is a limited set of attention patterns that are repeated across different heads, indicating the overall model overparametriza-tion. While different heads consistently use the same attention patterns, they have varying impact on performance across different tasks. We show that manually disabling attention in certain heads leads to a performance improvement over the regular fine-tuned BERT models. 1 Introduction Over the past year, models based on the Transformer architecture (V aswani et al., 2017) have become the de-facto standard for state-of-the-art performance on many natural language processing (NLP) tasks (Radford et al., 2018; Devlin et al., 2018). Their key feature is the self-attention mechanism that provides an alternative to conventionally used recurrent neural networks (RNN).


Adaptively Sparse Transformers

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Attention mechanisms have become ubiquitous in NLP. Recent architectures, notably the Transformer, learn powerful context-aware word representations through layered, multi-headed attention. The multiple heads learn diverse types of word relationships. However, with standard softmax attention, all attention heads are dense, assigning a non-zero weight to all context words. In this work, we introduce the adaptively sparse Transformer, wherein attention heads have flexible, context-dependent sparsity patterns. This sparsity is accomplished by replacing softmax with $\alpha$-entmax: a differentiable generalization of softmax that allows low-scoring words to receive precisely zero weight. Moreover, we derive a method to automatically learn the $\alpha$ parameter -- which controls the shape and sparsity of $\alpha$-entmax -- allowing attention heads to choose between focused or spread-out behavior. Our adaptively sparse Transformer improves interpretability and head diversity when compared to softmax Transformers on machine translation datasets. Findings of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of our approach include that heads in different layers learn different sparsity preferences and tend to be more diverse in their attention distributions than softmax Transformers. Furthermore, at no cost in accuracy, sparsity in attention heads helps to uncover different head specializations.


Visualizing and Measuring the Geometry of BERT

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Transformer architectures show significant promise for natural language processing. Given that a single pretrained model can be fine-tuned to perform well on many different tasks, these networks appear to extract generally useful linguistic features. A natural question is how such networks represent this information internally. This paper describes qualitative and quantitative investigations of one particularly effective model, BERT. At a high level, linguistic features seem to be represented in separate semantic and syntactic subspaces. We find evidence of a fine-grained geometric representation of word senses. We also present empirical descriptions of syntactic representations in both attention matrices and individual word embeddings, as well as a mathematical argument to explain the geometry of these representations.


Layer-Wise Coordination between Encoder and Decoder for Neural Machine Translation

Neural Information Processing Systems

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved remarkable progress with the quick evolvement of model structures. In this paper, we propose the concept of layer-wise coordination for NMT, which explicitly coordinates the learning of hidden representations of the encoder and decoder together layer by layer, gradually from low level to high level. Specifically, we design a layer-wise attention and mixed attention mechanism, and further share the parameters of each layer between the encoder and decoder to regularize and coordinate the learning. Experiments show that combined with the state-of-the-art Transformer model, layer-wise coordination achieves improvements on three IWSLT and two WMT translation tasks. More specifically, our method achieves 34.43 and 29.01 BLEU score on WMT16 English-Romanian and WMT14 English-German tasks, outperforming the Transformer baseline.