Bayesian networks are a popular representation of asymmetric (for example causal) relationships between random variables. Markov random fields (MRFs) are a complementary model of symmetric relationships used in computer vision, spatial modeling, and social and gene expression networks. A chain graph model under the Lauritzen-Wermuth-Frydenberg interpretation (hereafter a chain graph model) generalizes both Bayesian networks and MRFs, and can represent asymmetric and symmetric relationships together.As in other graphical models, the set of marginals from distributions in a chain graph model induced by the presence of hidden variables forms a complex model. One recent approach to the study of marginal graphical models is to consider a well-behaved supermodel. Such a supermodel of marginals of Bayesian networks, defined only by conditional independences, and termed the ordinary Markov model, was studied at length in (Evans and Richardson, 2014).In this paper, we show that special mixed graphs which we call segregated graphs can be associated, via a Markov property, with supermodels of a marginal of chain graphs defined only by conditional independences. Special features of segregated graphs imply the existence of a very natural factorization for these supermodels, and imply many existing results on the chain graph model, and ordinary Markov model carry over. Our results suggest that segregated graphs define an analogue of the ordinary Markov model for marginals of chain graph models.
In this paper, we deal with the problem of marginalization over and conditioning on two disjoint subsets of the node set of chain graphs (CGs) with the LWF Markov property. For this purpose, we define the class of chain mixed graphs (CMGs) with three types of edges and, for this class, provide a separation criterion under which the class of CMGs is stable under marginalization and conditioning and contains the class of LWF CGs as its subclass. We provide a method for generating such graphs after marginalization and conditioning for a given CMG or a given LWF CG. We then define and study the class of anterial graphs, which is also stable under marginalization and conditioning and contains LWF CGs, but has a simpler structure than CMGs.
Acyclic directed mixed graphs, also known as semi-Markov models represent the conditional independence structure induced on an observed margin by a DAG model with latent variables. In this paper we present a factorization criterion for these models that is equivalent to the global Markov property given by (the natural extension of) d-separation.
We introduce a new class of graphical models that generalizes Lauritzen-Wermuth-Frydenberg chain graphs by relaxing the semi-directed acyclity constraint so that only directed cycles are forbidden. Moreover, up to two edges are allowed between any pair of nodes. Specifically, we present local, pairwise and global Markov properties for the new graphical models and prove their equivalence. We also present an equivalent factorization property. Finally, we present a causal interpretation of the new models.