Bayesian networks are a popular representation of asymmetric (for example causal) relationships between random variables. Markov random fields (MRFs) are a complementary model of symmetric relationships used in computer vision, spatial modeling, and social and gene expression networks. A chain graph model under the Lauritzen-Wermuth-Frydenberg interpretation (hereafter a chain graph model) generalizes both Bayesian networks and MRFs, and can represent asymmetric and symmetric relationships together.As in other graphical models, the set of marginals from distributions in a chain graph model induced by the presence of hidden variables forms a complex model. One recent approach to the study of marginal graphical models is to consider a well-behaved supermodel. Such a supermodel of marginals of Bayesian networks, defined only by conditional independences, and termed the ordinary Markov model, was studied at length in (Evans and Richardson, 2014).In this paper, we show that special mixed graphs which we call segregated graphs can be associated, via a Markov property, with supermodels of a marginal of chain graphs defined only by conditional independences. Special features of segregated graphs imply the existence of a very natural factorization for these supermodels, and imply many existing results on the chain graph model, and ordinary Markov model carry over. Our results suggest that segregated graphs define an analogue of the ordinary Markov model for marginals of chain graph models.
Graphical models have proven to be powerful tools for representing high-dimensional systems of random variables. One example of such a model is the undirected graph, in which lack of an edge represents conditional independence between two random variables given the rest. Another example is the bidirected graph, in which absence of edges encodes pairwise marginal independence. Both of these classes of graphical models have been extensively studied, and while they are considered to be dual to one another, except in a few instances this duality has not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, we demonstrate how duality between undirected and bidirected models can be used to transport results for one class of graphical models to the dual model in a transparent manner. We proceed to apply this technique to extend previously existing results as well as to prove new ones, in three important domains. First, we discuss the pairwise and global Markov properties for undirected and bidirected models, using the pseudographoid and reverse-pseudographoid rules which are weaker conditions than the typically used intersection and composition rules. Second, we investigate these pseudographoid and reverse pseudographoid rules in the context of probability distributions, using the concept of duality in the process. Duality allows us to quickly relate them to the more familiar intersection and composition properties. Third and finally, we apply the dualization method to understand the implications of faithfulness, which in turn leads to a more general form of an existing result.
Ancestral graphs are a class of graphs that encode conditional independence relations arising in DAG models with latent and selection variables, corresponding to marginalization and conditioning. However, for any ancestral graph, there may be several other graphs to which it is Markov equivalent. We introduce a simple representation of a Markov equivalence class of ancestral graphs, thereby facilitating model search. \ More specifically, we define a join operation on ancestral graphs which will associate a unique graph with a Markov equivalence class. We also extend the separation criterion for ancestral graphs (which is an extension of d-separation) and provide a proof of the pairwise Markov property for joined ancestral graphs.
Acyclic directed mixed graphs, also known as semi-Markov models represent the conditional independence structure induced on an observed margin by a DAG model with latent variables. In this paper we present a factorization criterion for these models that is equivalent to the global Markov property given by (the natural extension of) d-separation.