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Deep Graph Translation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Inspired by the tremendous success of deep generative models on generating continuous data like image and audio, in the most recent year, few deep graph generative models have been proposed to generate discrete data such as graphs. They are typically unconditioned generative models which has no control on modes of the graphs being generated. Differently, in this paper, we are interested in a new problem named \emph{Deep Graph Translation}: given an input graph, we want to infer a target graph based on their underlying (both global and local) translation mapping. Graph translation could be highly desirable in many applications such as disaster management and rare event forecasting, where the rare and abnormal graph patterns (e.g., traffic congestions and terrorism events) will be inferred prior to their occurrence even without historical data on the abnormal patterns for this graph (e.g., a road network or human contact network). To achieve this, we propose a novel Graph-Translation-Generative Adversarial Networks (GT-GAN) which will generate a graph translator from input to target graphs. GT-GAN consists of a graph translator where we propose new graph convolution and deconvolution layers to learn the global and local translation mapping. A new conditional graph discriminator has also been proposed to classify target graphs by conditioning on input graphs. Extensive experiments on multiple synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed GT-GAN.


Towards Sparse Hierarchical Graph Classifiers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent advances in representation learning on graphs, mainly leveraging graph convolutional networks, have brought a substantial improvement on many graph-based benchmark tasks. While novel approaches to learning node embeddings are highly suitable for node classification and link prediction, their application to graph classification (predicting a single label for the entire graph) remains mostly rudimentary, typically using a single global pooling step to aggregate node features or a hand-designed, fixed heuristic for hierarchical coarsening of the graph structure. An important step towards ameliorating this is differentiable graph coarsening---the ability to reduce the size of the graph in an adaptive, data-dependent manner within a graph neural network pipeline, analogous to image downsampling within CNNs. However, the previous prominent approach to pooling has quadratic memory requirements during training and is therefore not scalable to large graphs. Here we combine several recent advances in graph neural network design to demonstrate that competitive hierarchical graph classification results are possible without sacrificing sparsity. Our results are verified on several established graph classification benchmarks, and highlight an important direction for future research in graph-based neural networks.


Modular meta-learning in abstract graph networks for combinatorial generalization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Modular meta-learning is a new framework that generalizes to unseen datasets by combining a small set of neural modules in different ways. In this work we propose abstract graph networks: using graphs as abstractions of a system's subparts without a fixed assignment of nodes to system subparts, for which we would need supervision. We combine this idea with modular meta-learning to get a flexible framework with combinatorial generalization to new tasks built in. We then use it to model the pushing of arbitrarily shaped objects from little or no training data.


GLoMo: Unsupervisedly Learned Relational Graphs as Transferable Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Modern deep transfer learning approaches have mainly focused on learning generic feature vectors from one task that are transferable to other tasks, such as word embeddings in language and pretrained convolutional features in vision. However, these approaches usually transfer unary features and largely ignore more structured graphical representations. This work explores the possibility of learning generic latent relational graphs that capture dependencies between pairs of data units (e.g., words or pixels) from large-scale unlabeled data and transferring the graphs to downstream tasks. Our proposed transfer learning framework improves performance on various tasks including question answering, natural language inference, sentiment analysis, and image classification. We also show that the learned graphs are generic enough to be transferred to different embeddings on which the graphs have not been trained (including GloVe embeddings, ELMo embeddings, and task-specific RNN hidden unit), or embedding-free units such as image pixels.


Adversarially Regularized Graph Autoencoder

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph embedding is an effective method to represent graph data in a low dimensional space for graph analytics. Most existing embedding algorithms typically focus on preserving the topological structure or minimizing the reconstruction errors of graph data, but they have mostly ignored the data distribution of the latent codes from the graphs, which often results in inferior embedding in real-world graph data. In this paper, we propose a novel adversarial graph embedding framework for graph data. The framework encodes the topological structure and node content in a graph to a compact representation, on which a decoder is trained to reconstruct the graph structure. Furthermore, the latent representation is enforced to match a prior distribution via an adversarial training scheme. To learn a robust embedding, two variants of adversarial approaches, adversarially regularized graph autoencoder (ARGA) and adversarially regularized variational graph autoencoder (ARVGA), are developed. Experimental studies on real-world graphs validate our design and demonstrate that our algorithms outperform baselines by a wide margin in link prediction, graph clustering, and graph visualization tasks.