Bilingual Lexicon Induction from Non-Parallel Data with Minimal Supervision

AAAI Conferences

Building bilingual lexica from non-parallel data is a long-standing natural language processing research problem that could benefit thousands of resource-scarce languages which lack parallel data. Recent advances of continuous word representations have opened up new possibilities for this task, e.g. by establishing cross-lingual mapping between word embeddings via a seed lexicon. The method is however unreliable when there are only a limited number of seeds, which is a reasonable setting for resource-scarce languages. We tackle the limitation by introducing a novel matching mechanism into bilingual word representation learning. It captures extra translation pairs exposed by the seeds to incrementally improve the bilingual word embeddings. In our experiments, we find the matching mechanism to substantially improve the quality of the bilingual vector space, which in turn allows us to induce better bilingual lexica with seeds as few as 10.


Joint Word Representation Learning Using a Corpus and a Semantic Lexicon

AAAI Conferences

Methods for learning word representations using large text corpora have received much attention lately due to their impressive performancein numerous natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as, semantic similarity measurement, and word analogy detection.Despite their success, these data-driven word representation learning methods do not considerthe rich semantic relational structure between words in a co-occurring context. On the other hand, already much manual effort has gone into the construction of semantic lexicons such as the WordNetthat represent the meanings of words by defining the various relationships that exist among the words in a language.We consider the question, can we improve the word representations learnt using a corpora by integrating theknowledge from semantic lexicons?. For this purpose, we propose a joint word representation learning method that simultaneously predictsthe co-occurrences of two words in a sentence subject to the relational constrains given by the semantic lexicon.We use relations that exist between words in the lexicon to regularize the word representations learnt from the corpus.Our proposed method statistically significantly outperforms previously proposed methods for incorporating semantic lexicons into wordrepresentations on several benchmark datasets for semantic similarity and word analogy.


The Automatic Acquisition of a Broad-Coverage Semantic Lexicon for use in Information Retrieval

AAAI Conferences

Every natural language processing (NLP) system has a requirement for lexical information. While there has been considerable progress in developing et icient lexical representations of morphological (Koskenniemi, 1983) and syntactic (Heilwig, 1980; Sleator and Temperley, 1991) information attempts at constructing a wide-coverage lexicon of semantic information have met with considerable difficulty. First, it is very dit icult to devise a general yet powerful semantic representation scheme. Meanings are hard to pin down. Second, even if such a scheme exists, it is not easy to create repre- "The help of Tony Molloy, Redmond O'Brien sad Gemma Rysa is gratefully acknowledged.


Cause Identification from Aviation Safety Incident Reports via Weakly Supervised Semantic Lexicon Construction

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

The Aviation Safety Reporting System collects voluntarily submitted reports on aviation safety incidents to facilitate research work aiming to reduce such incidents. To effectively reduce these incidents, it is vital to accurately identify why these incidents occurred. More precisely, given a set of possible causes, or shaping factors, this task of cause identification involves identifying all and only those shaping factors that are responsible for the incidents described in a report. We investigate two approaches to cause identification. Both approaches exploit information provided by a semantic lexicon, which is automatically constructed via Thelen and Riloff's Basilisk framework augmented with our linguistic and algorithmic modifications. The first approach labels a report using a simple heuristic, which looks for the words and phrases acquired during the semantic lexicon learning process in the report. The second approach recasts cause identification as a text classification problem, employing supervised and transductive text classification algorithms to learn models from incident reports labeled with shaping factors and using the models to label unseen reports. Our experiments show that both the heuristic-based approach and the learning-based approach (when given sufficient training data) outperform the baseline system significantly.


Cause Identification from Aviation Safety Incident Reports via Weakly Supervised Semantic Lexicon Construction

AAAI Conferences

The Aviation Safety Reporting System collects voluntarily submitted reports on aviation safety incidents to facilitate research work aiming to reduce such incidents. To effectively reduce these incidents, it is vital to accurately identify why these incidents occurred. More precisely, given a set of possible causes, or shaping factors, this task of cause identification involves identifying all and only those shaping factors that are responsible for the incidents described in a report. We investigate two approaches to cause identification. Both approaches exploit information provided by a semantic lexicon, which is automatically constructed via Thelen and Riloff's Basilisk framework augmented with our linguistic and algorithmic modifications. The first approach labels a report using a simple heuristic, which looks for the words and phrases acquired during the semantic lexicon learning process in the report. The second approach recasts cause identification as a text classification problem, employing supervised and transductive text classification algorithms to learn models from incident reports labeled with shaping factors and using the models to label unseen reports. Our experiments show that both the heuristic-based approach and the learning-based approach (when given sufficient training data) outperform the baseline system significantly.