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Reasoning about Typicality and Probabilities in Preferential Description Logics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this work we describe preferential Description Logics of typicality, a nonmonotonic extension of standard Description Logics by means of a typicality operator T allowing to extend a knowledge base with inclusions of the form T(C) D, whose intuitive meaning is that "normally/typically Cs are also Ds". This extension is based on a minimal model semantics corresponding to a notion of rational closure, built upon preferential models. We recall the basic concepts underlying preferential Description Logics. We also present two extensions of the preferential semantics: on the one hand, we consider probabilistic extensions, based on a distributed semantics that is suitable for tackling the problem of commonsense concept combination, on the other hand, we consider other strengthening of the rational closure semantics and construction to avoid the so called "blocking of property inheritance problem".


On Rational Closure in Description Logics of Typicality

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We define the notion of rational closure in the context of Description Logics extended with a tipicality operator. We start from ALC+T, an extension of ALC with a typicality operator T: intuitively allowing to express concepts of the form T(C), meant to select the "most normal" instances of a concept C. The semantics we consider is based on rational model. But we further restrict the semantics to minimal models, that is to say, to models that minimise the rank of domain elements. We show that this semantics captures exactly a notion of rational closure which is a natural extension to Description Logics of Lehmann and Magidor's original one. We also extend the notion of rational closure to the Abox component. We provide an ExpTime algorithm for computing the rational closure of an Abox and we show that it is sound and complete with respect to the minimal model semantics.


Reasoning About Typicality in Low Complexity DLs: the Logics EL⊥Tmin and DL-LitecTmin

AAAI Conferences

We propose a nonmonotonic extension of low complexity Description Logics EL⊥ and DL-Litecore for reasoning about typicality and defeasible properties. The resulting logics are called EL⊥ T min and DL-Litec T min . Concerning DL-Litec T min , we prove that entailment is in \Pi^p_2. With regard to EL⊥ T min , we first show that entailment remains EXPTIME-hard. Next we consider the known fragment of Left Local EL⊥ T min and we prove that the complexity of entailment drops to \Pi^p_2.


Reasoning about exceptions in ontologies: from the lexicographic closure to the skeptical closure

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Reasoning about exceptions in ontologies is nowadays one of the challenges the description logics community is facing. The paper describes a preferential approach for dealing with exceptions in Description Logics, based on the rational closure. The rational closure has the merit of providing a simple and efficient approach for reasoning with exceptions, but it does not allow independent handling of the inheritance of different defeasible properties of concepts. In this work we outline a possible solution to this problem by introducing a variant of the lexicographical closure, that we call skeptical closure, which requires to construct a single base. We develop a bi-preference semantics semantics for defining a characterization of the skeptical closure.


Defeasible Reasoning in SROEL: from Rational Entailment to Rational Closure

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this work we study a rational extension $SROEL^R T$ of the low complexity description logic SROEL, which underlies the OWL EL ontology language. The extension involves a typicality operator T, whose semantics is based on Lehmann and Magidor's ranked models and allows for the definition of defeasible inclusions. We consider both rational entailment and minimal entailment. We show that deciding instance checking under minimal entailment is in general $\Pi^P_2$-hard, while, under rational entailment, instance checking can be computed in polynomial time. We develop a Datalog calculus for instance checking under rational entailment and exploit it, with stratified negation, for computing the rational closure of simple KBs in polynomial time.