Multi-robot path planning is difficult due to the combinatorial explosion of the search space with every new robot added. Complete search of the combined state-space soon becomes intractable. In this paper we present a novel form of abstraction that allows us to plan much more efficiently. The key to this abstraction is the partitioning of the map into subgraphs of known structure with entry and exit restrictions which we can represent compactly. Planning then becomes a search in the much smaller space of subgraph configurations. Once an abstract plan is found, it can be quickly resolved into a correct (but possibly sub-optimal) concrete plan without the need for further search. We prove that this technique is sound and complete and demonstrate its practical effectiveness on a real map. A contending solution, prioritised planning, is also evaluated and shown to have similar performance albeit at the cost of completeness. The two approaches are not necessarily conflicting; we demonstrate how they can be combined into a single algorithm which outperforms either approach alone.
Recent work in multi-agent path planning has provided a number of optimal and suboptimal solvers that can efficiently find solutions to problems of growing complexity. Solvers based on Conflict-Based Search (CBS) combine single-agent solvers with shared constraints between agents to find feasible solutions. Suboptimal variants of CBS introduce alternate heuristics to avoid conflicts. In this paper we study the multi-agent planning problem in the context of non-holonomic vehicles planning on a lattice. We propose that in addition to using heuristics to avoid conflicts, we can plan using a hierarchy of movement constraints to efficiently avoid conflicts. We develop a new extension to the CBS algorithm, CBS with constraint layering (CBS+CL), which iteratively applies different movement constraint models during the CBS planning process. Our results show that this approach allows us to solve for about 2.4 times more agents in the same amount of time when compared to regular CBS without using a constraint hierarchy.
Classification and regression in which the inputs are graphs of arbitrary size and shape have been paid attention in various fields such as computational chemistry and bioinformatics. Subgraph indicators are often used as the most fundamental features, but the number of possible subgraph patterns are intractably large due to the combinatorial explosion. We propose a novel efficient algorithm to jointly learn relevant subgraph patterns and nonlinear models of their indicators. Previous methods for such joint learning of subgraph features and models are based on search for single best subgraph features with specific pruning and boosting procedures of adding their indicators one by one, which result in linear models of subgraph indicators. In contrast, the proposed approach is based on directly learning regression trees for graph inputs using a newly derived bound of the total sum of squares for data partitions by a given subgraph feature, and thus can learn nonlinear models through standard gradient boosting. An illustrative example we call the Graph-XOR problem to consider nonlinearity, numerical experiments with real datasets, and scalability comparisons to naive approaches using explicit pattern enumeration are also presented.
The problem of finding itemsets that are statistically significantly enriched in a class of transactions is complicated by the need to correct for multiple hypothesis testing. Pruning untestable hypotheses was recently proposed as a strategy for this task of significant itemset mining. It was shown to lead to greater statistical power, the discovery of more truly significant itemsets, than the standard Bonferroni correction on real-world datasets. An open question, however, is whether this strategy of excluding untestable hypotheses also leads to greater statistical power in subgraph mining, in which the number of hypotheses is much larger than in itemset mining. Here we answer this question by an empirical investigation on eight popular graph benchmark datasets. We propose a new efficient search strategy, which always returns the same solution as the state-of-the-art approach and is approximately two orders of magnitude faster. Moreover, we exploit the dependence between subgraphs by considering the effective number of tests and thereby further increase the statistical power.
Receiver algorithms which combine belief propagation (BP) with the mean field (MF) approximation are well-suited for inference of both continuous and discrete random variables. In wireless scenarios involving detection of multiple signals, the standard construction of the combined BP-MF framework includes the equalization or multi-user detection functions within the MF subgraph. In this paper, we show that the MF approximation is not particularly effective for multi-signal detection. We develop a new factor graph construction for application of the BP-MF framework to problems involving the detection of multiple signals. We then develop a low-complexity variant to the proposed construction in which Gaussian BP is applied to the equalization factors. In this case, the factor graph of the joint probability distribution is divided into three subgraphs: (i) a MF subgraph comprised of the observation factors and channel estimation, (ii) a Gaussian BP subgraph which is applied to multi-signal detection, and (iii) a discrete BP subgraph which is applied to demodulation and decoding. Expectation propagation is used to approximate discrete distributions with a Gaussian distribution and links the discrete BP and Gaussian BP subgraphs. The result is a probabilistic receiver architecture with strong theoretical justification which can be applied to multi-signal detection.