In this study, a hybrid method based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for diagnosing Liver disorders (ANFIS-PSO) is introduced. This smart diagnosis method deals with a combination of making an inference system and optimization process which tries to tune the hyper-parameters of ANFIS based on the data-set. The Liver diseases characteristics are taken from the UCI Repository of Machine Learning Databases. The number of these characteristic attributes are 7, and the sample number is 354. The right diagnosis performance of the ANFIS-PSO intelligent medical system for liver disease is evaluated by using classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity analysis, respectively. According to the experimental results, the performance of ANFIS-PSO can be more considerable than traditional FIS and ANFIS without optimization phase.
The pandemic COVID-19 disease has had a dramatic impact on almost all countries around the world so that many hospitals have been overwhelmed with Covid-19 cases. As medical resources are limited, deciding on the proper allocation of these resources is a very crucial issue. Besides, uncertainty is a major factor that can affect decisions, especially in medical fields. To cope with this issue, we use fuzzy logic (FL) as one of the most suitable methods in modeling systems with high uncertainty and complexity. We intend to make use of the advantages of FL in decisions on cases that need to treat in ICU. In this study, an interval type-2 fuzzy expert system is proposed for prediction of ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. For this prediction task, we also developed an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Finally, the results of these fuzzy systems are compared to some well-known classification methods such as Naive Bayes (NB), Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Decision Tree (DT), and K Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The results show that the type-2 fuzzy expert system and ANFIS models perform competitively in terms of accuracy and F-measure compared to the other system modeling techniques.
The main purposes of this study are to distinguish the trends of research in publication exits for the utilisations of the fuzzy expert and knowledge-based systems that is done based on the classification of studies in the last decade. The present investigation covers 60 articles from related scholastic journals, International conference proceedings and some major literature review papers. Our outcomes reveal an upward trend in the up-to-date publications number, that is evidence of growing notoriety on the various applications of fuzzy expert systems. This raise in the reports is mainly in the medical neuro-fuzzy and fuzzy expert systems. Moreover, another most critical observation is that many modern industrial applications are extended, employing knowledge-based systems by extracting the experts' knowledge.
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) plays a pivotal role in reduction of uncertainties during both optimization and decision making processes. It can be applied to solve a variety of real-world applications in science and engineering. Bayesian approximation and ensemble learning techniques are two most widely-used UQ methods in the literature. In this regard, researchers have proposed different UQ methods and examined their performance in a variety of applications such as computer vision (e.g., self-driving cars and object detection), image processing (e.g., image restoration), medical image analysis (e.g., medical image classification and segmentation), natural language processing (e.g., text classification, social media texts and recidivism risk-scoring), bioinformatics, etc.This study reviews recent advances in UQ methods used in deep learning. Moreover, we also investigate the application of these methods in reinforcement learning (RL). Then, we outline a few important applications of UQ methods. Finally, we briefly highlight the fundamental research challenges faced by UQ methods and discuss the future research directions in this field.
In the big data domain, researchers need to ensure that conclusions are consistently verifiable. But that can be particularly challenging in medicine because physicians themselves aren't always sure about disease diagnoses and treatment plans. To investigate how machine learning research has historically handled medical uncertainties, scientists at the University of Texas at Dallas; the University of California, San Francisco; the National University of Singapore; and over half a dozen other institutions conducted a meta-survey of studies over the past 30 years. They found that uncertainty arising from imprecise measurements, missing values, and other errors was common among data and models but that the problems could potentially be addressed with deep learning techniques. The coauthors sought to quantify the prevalence of two types of uncertainty in the studies: structural uncertainty and uncertainty in model parameters.