Exploring the tremendous amount of data efficiently to make a decision, similar to answering a complicated question, is challenging with many real-world application scenarios. In this context, automatic summarization has substantial importance as it will provide the foundation for big data analytic. Traditional summarization approaches optimize the system to produce a short static summary that fits all users that do not consider the subjectivity aspect of summarization, i.e., what is deemed valuable for different users, making these approaches impractical in real-world use cases. This paper proposes an interactive concept-based summarization model, called Adaptive Summaries, that helps users make their desired summary instead of producing a single inflexible summary. The system learns from users' provided information gradually while interacting with the system by giving feedback in an iterative loop. Users can choose either reject or accept action for selecting a concept being included in the summary with the importance of that concept from users' perspectives and confidence level of their feedback. The proposed approach can guarantee interactive speed to keep the user engaged in the process. Furthermore, it eliminates the need for reference summaries, which is a challenging issue for summarization tasks. Evaluations show that Adaptive Summaries helps users make high-quality summaries based on their preferences by maximizing the user-desired content in the generated summaries.
Automatic summarisation is a popular approach to reduce a document to its main arguments. Recent research in the area has focused on neural approaches to summarisation, which can be very data-hungry. However, few large datasets exist and none for the traditionally popular domain of scientific publications, which opens up challenging research avenues centered on encoding large, complex documents. In this paper, we introduce a new dataset for summarisation of computer science publications by exploiting a large resource of author provided summaries and show straightforward ways of extending it further. We develop models on the dataset making use of both neural sentence encoding and traditionally used summarisation features and show that models which encode sentences as well as their local and global context perform best, significantly outperforming well-established baseline methods.
For many NLP applications, such as question answering and summarisation, the goal is to select the best solution from a large space of candidates to meet a particular user's needs. To address the lack of user-specific training data, we propose an interactive text ranking approach that actively selects pairs of candidates, from which the user selects the best. Unlike previous strategies, which attempt to learn a ranking across the whole candidate space, our method employs Bayesian optimisation to focus the user's labelling effort on high quality candidates and integrates prior knowledge in a Bayesian manner to cope better with small data scenarios. We apply our method to community question answering (cQA) and extractive summarisation, finding that it significantly outperforms existing interactive approaches. We also show that the ranking function learned by our method is an effective reward function for reinforcement learning, which improves the state of the art for interactive summarisation.
We propose a method to perform automatic document summarisation without using reference summaries. Instead, our method interactively learns from users' preferences. The merit of preference-based interactive summarisation is that preferences are easier for users to provide than reference summaries. Existing preference-based interactive learning methods suffer from high sample complexity, i.e. they need to interact with the oracle for many rounds in order to converge. In this work, we propose a new objective function, which enables us to leverage active learning, preference learning and reinforcement learning techniques in order to reduce the sample complexity. Both simulation and real-user experiments suggest that our method significantly advances the state of the art. Our source code is freely available at https://github.com/UKPLab/emnlp2018-april.
We introduce the task of historical text summarisation, where documents in historical forms of a language are summarised in the corresponding modern language. This is a fundamentally important routine to historians and digital humanities researchers but has never been automated. We compile a high-quality gold-standard text summarisation dataset, which consists of historical German and Chinese news from hundreds of years ago summarised in modern German or Chinese. Based on cross-lingual transfer learning techniques, we propose a summarisation model that can be trained even with no cross-lingual (historical to modern) parallel data, and further benchmark it against state-of-the-art algorithms. We report automatic and human evaluations that distinguish the historic to modern language summarisation task from standard cross-lingual summarisation (i.e., modern to modern language), highlight the distinctness and value of our dataset, and demonstrate that our transfer learning approach outperforms standard cross-lingual benchmarks on this task.