Network embeddings, which learn low-dimensional representations for each vertex in a large-scale network, have received considerable attention in recent years. For a wide range of applications, vertices in a network are typically accompanied by rich textual information such as user profiles, paper abstracts, etc. We propose to incorporate semantic features into network embeddings by matching important words between text sequences for all pairs of vertices. We introduce a word-by-word alignment framework that measures the compatibility of embeddings between word pairs, and then adaptively accumulates these alignment features with a simple yet effective aggregation function. In experiments, we evaluate the proposed framework on three real-world benchmarks for downstream tasks, including link prediction and multi-label vertex classification. Results demonstrate that our model outperforms state-of-the-art network embedding methods by a large margin.
Textual network embedding aims to learn low-dimensional representations of text-annotated nodes in a graph. Prior works have typically focused on fixed graph structures. However, real-world networks are often dynamic. We address this challenge with a novel end-to-end node-embedding model, called Dynamic Embedding for Textual Networks with a Gaussian Process (DetGP). Because the structure is allowed to be dynamic, our method uses the Gaussian process to take advantage of its non-parametric properties. After training, DetGP can be applied efficiently to dynamic graphs without re-training or backpropagation. To use both local and global graph structures, diffusion is used to model multiple hops between neighbors. The relative importance of global versus local structure for the embeddings is learned automatically. With the non-parametric nature of the Gaussian process, updating the embeddings for a changed graph structure requires only a forward pass through the learned model. Experiments demonstrate the empirical effectiveness of our method compared to baseline approaches, on link prediction and node classification. We further show that DetGP can be straightforwardly and efficiently applied to dynamic textual networks.
Graph embedding methods represent nodes in a continuous vector space, preserving information from the graph (e.g. by sampling random walks). There are many hyper-parameters to these methods (such as random walk length) which have to be manually tuned for every graph. In this paper, we replace random walk hyper-parameters with trainable parameters that we automatically learn via backpropagation. In particular, we learn a novel attention model on the power series of the transition matrix, which guides the random walk to optimize an upstream objective. Unlike previous approaches to attention models, the method that we propose utilizes attention parameters exclusively on the data (e.g. on the random walk), and not used by the model for inference. We experiment on link prediction tasks, as we aim to produce embeddings that best-preserve the graph structure, generalizing to unseen information. We improve state-of-the-art on a comprehensive suite of real world datasets including social, collaboration, and biological networks. Adding attention to random walks can reduce the error by 20% to 45% on datasets we attempted. Further, our learned attention parameters are different for every graph, and our automatically-found values agree with the optimal choice of hyper-parameter if we manually tune existing methods.
Abstract--The problem of unsupervised learning node embeddings in graphs is one of the important directions in modern network science. In this work we propose a novel framework, which is aimed to find embeddings by discriminating distributions of similarities (DDoS) between nodes in the graph. The general idea is implemented by maximizing the earth mover distance between distributions of decoded similarities of similar and dissimilar nodes. The resulting algorithm generates embeddings which give a state-of-the-art performance in the problem of link prediction in real-world graphs. The quality of machine learning methods largely depends on the particular representation (or features) chosen for the data.
Recent advancements in deep neural networks for graph-structured data have led to state-of-the-art performance on recommender system benchmarks. However, making these methods practical and scalable to web-scale recommendation tasks with billions of items and hundreds of millions of users remains a challenge. Here we describe a large-scale deep recommendation engine that we developed and deployed at Pinterest. We develop a data-efficient Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) algorithm PinSage, which combines efficient random walks and graph convolutions to generate embeddings of nodes (i.e., items) that incorporate both graph structure as well as node feature information. Compared to prior GCN approaches, we develop a novel method based on highly efficient random walks to structure the convolutions and design a novel training strategy that relies on harder-and-harder training examples to improve robustness and convergence of the model. We also develop an efficient MapReduce model inference algorithm to generate embeddings using a trained model. We deploy PinSage at Pinterest and train it on 7.5 billion examples on a graph with 3 billion nodes representing pins and boards, and 18 billion edges. According to offline metrics, user studies and A/B tests, PinSage generates higher-quality recommendations than comparable deep learning and graph-based alternatives. To our knowledge, this is the largest application of deep graph embeddings to date and paves the way for a new generation of web-scale recommender systems based on graph convolutional architectures.