Network embeddings, which learn low-dimensional representations for each vertex in a large-scale network, have received considerable attention in recent years. For a wide range of applications, vertices in a network are typically accompanied by rich textual information such as user profiles, paper abstracts, etc. We propose to incorporate semantic features into network embeddings by matching important words between text sequences for all pairs of vertices. We introduce a word-by-word alignment framework that measures the compatibility of embeddings between word pairs, and then adaptively accumulates these alignment features with a simple yet effective aggregation function. In experiments, we evaluate the proposed framework on three real-world benchmarks for downstream tasks, including link prediction and multi-label vertex classification. Results demonstrate that our model outperforms state-of-the-art network embedding methods by a large margin.
Graph embedding methods represent nodes in a continuous vector space, preserving information from the graph (e.g. by sampling random walks). There are many hyper-parameters to these methods (such as random walk length) which have to be manually tuned for every graph. In this paper, we replace random walk hyper-parameters with trainable parameters that we automatically learn via backpropagation. In particular, we learn a novel attention model on the power series of the transition matrix, which guides the random walk to optimize an upstream objective. Unlike previous approaches to attention models, the method that we propose utilizes attention parameters exclusively on the data (e.g. on the random walk), and not used by the model for inference. We experiment on link prediction tasks, as we aim to produce embeddings that best-preserve the graph structure, generalizing to unseen information. We improve state-of-the-art on a comprehensive suite of real world datasets including social, collaboration, and biological networks. Adding attention to random walks can reduce the error by 20% to 45% on datasets we attempted. Further, our learned attention parameters are different for every graph, and our automatically-found values agree with the optimal choice of hyper-parameter if we manually tune existing methods.
Recent advancements in deep neural networks for graph-structured data have led to state-of-the-art performance on recommender system benchmarks. However, making these methods practical and scalable to web-scale recommendation tasks with billions of items and hundreds of millions of users remains a challenge. Here we describe a large-scale deep recommendation engine that we developed and deployed at Pinterest. We develop a data-efficient Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) algorithm PinSage, which combines efficient random walks and graph convolutions to generate embeddings of nodes (i.e., items) that incorporate both graph structure as well as node feature information. Compared to prior GCN approaches, we develop a novel method based on highly efficient random walks to structure the convolutions and design a novel training strategy that relies on harder-and-harder training examples to improve robustness and convergence of the model. We also develop an efficient MapReduce model inference algorithm to generate embeddings using a trained model. We deploy PinSage at Pinterest and train it on 7.5 billion examples on a graph with 3 billion nodes representing pins and boards, and 18 billion edges. According to offline metrics, user studies and A/B tests, PinSage generates higher-quality recommendations than comparable deep learning and graph-based alternatives. To our knowledge, this is the largest application of deep graph embeddings to date and paves the way for a new generation of web-scale recommender systems based on graph convolutional architectures.
Network embedding has proved extremely useful in a variety of network analysis tasks such as node classification, link prediction, and network visualization. Almost all the existing network embedding methods learn to map the node IDs to their corresponding node embeddings. This design principle, however, hinders the existing methods from being applied in real cases. Node ID is not generalizable and, thus, the existing methods have to pay great effort in cold-start problem. The heterogeneous network usually requires extra work to encode node types, as node type is not able to be identified by node ID. Node ID carries rare information, resulting in the criticism that the existing methods are not robust to noise. To address this issue, we introduce Compositional Network Embedding, a general inductive network representation learning framework that generates node embeddings by combining node features based on the principle of compositionally. Instead of directly optimizing an embedding lookup based on arbitrary node IDs, we learn a composition function that infers node embeddings by combining the corresponding node attribute embeddings through a graph-based loss. For evaluation, we conduct the experiments on link prediction under four different settings. The results verified the effectiveness and generalization ability of compositional network embeddings, especially on unseen nodes.
Graph embedding methods represent nodes in a continuous vector space, preserving different types of relational information from the graph. There are many hyper-parameters to these methods (e.g. the length of a random walk) which have to be manually tuned for every graph. In this paper, we replace previously fixed hyper-parameters with trainable ones that we automatically learn via backpropagation. In particular, we propose a novel attention model on the power series of the transition matrix, which guides the random walk to optimize an upstream objective. Unlike previous approaches to attention models, the method that we propose utilizes attention parameters exclusively on the data itself (e.g. on the random walk), and are not used by the model for inference. We experiment on link prediction tasks, as we aim to produce embeddings that best-preserve the graph structure, generalizing to unseen information. We improve state-of-the-art results on a comprehensive suite of real-world graph datasets including social, collaboration, and biological networks, where we observe that our graph attention model can reduce the error by up to 20\%-40\%. We show that our automatically-learned attention parameters can vary significantly per graph, and correspond to the optimal choice of hyper-parameter if we manually tune existing methods.